The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND


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Refraction

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND


o The average field density in the space of a leaded glass is higher than regular sand/silicon dioxide/SiO2, and the amount of absorption and reemission time is greater, causing a greater transit time.  

o Glass is transparent because the bonds of the crystalline structure of glass are too energetic to absorb a low energy photon.  Thus, glass will be more likely to absorb a higher energy photon such as Ultraviolet.  For this reason it is less likely that a person can receive a sunburn behind a glass window.

o Shorter and longer waves may resonate with the bond strengths or the orbital energies available in a material, and thus be absorbed.  Such a material would be opaque to the passage of light.  

o Very short waves such as x rays resonate with the orbital energies of the inner atomic orbitals, and ã rays resonate with the energies seen in nuclear bonding and inside subatomic particles.  

o The issue of refraction is only relevant if a photon if the material is transparent to at the photon’s wavelength.  The material will have a higher Index of Refraction dependent on the absorption and reemission time.

o The rate of transmission of an EM field through a space depends on the material, and on the wavelength of the passing photon.  Materials can have a complex index of refraction vs. wavelength profile, with large rises and falls in speed of light (and the resulting index of refraction) over a broad frequency spectrum.

· The frequency vs. speed of light phenomenon is the basis of the prism and the rainbow produced by shining white light through the prism.  White light is a combination of all the colors of the rainbow, and a glass or water prism will spread the colors out so that when light hits the surface of the prism at an angle, the waves are bent to hit the target at different angles, making the different colors of the spectrum visible.  Glass conducts the short wavelength, 400nm, high energy, blue photons at a slower rate, and as a result, they bend more strongly than the longer wavelength, 700nm, red photons.  

· Birefringence: Materials with a crystalline ordered atomic structure have the ability to be absorbed and re-emit from the crystalline planes.  This produces the effect of a second index of refraction, which produces a double image.

· Xray Crystallography: Photons bending around atoms that are in a crystalline matrix, forming a pattern on a target that corresponds to the location of the repeating pattern of the molecule is the basis of x-ray crystallography.  X rays are used because they resonate with the atomic orbital at a wavelength of about .1 nm.  

· Atomic absorption: At certain very specific wavelengths, the orbital electrons of a gaseous substance will absorb light.  The absorption spectrum of white light can therefore be used to identify the elements composing stars.  These absorbed wavelengths are the frequencies that are captured by atoms and are equal to the activation energies between orbitals.

· The μ and ε of Space: These two parameters reflect the ability of space to conduct light.  The μ (magnetic permeability of space), and the ε (the electrical permittivity of space) are reflective of the rate that an EM wave will conduct energy through space.  

o μ is an inductive term, in units of Henrys/meter, and å is a capacitive term, in units of Farads/meter.  The greater the induction and capacitive nature of the space, the slower light travels through that space.  

o The μ and ε of space increase in magnitude as space is polarized by the presence of EM fields, which are increased as fields pass through the space, or by the presence of mass.  Photons passing through a “stressed” space will travel slower, and refract when traveling from a high to low or low to high index of refraction.

· A high energy photon, i.e. with a wavelength close to the diameter of a nucleus, when it passes close to a nucleus will be strongly influenced by the dense aggregation of fields associated with the nuclear mass.  As a result, this very short wavelength will strongly refract when passing close to the nucleus.  The space around the nucleus is heavily polarized, and therefore has a high μ and ε, which result in slowing the speed of light in that space.   Space influenced by mass can be heavily saturated with EM fields, and the μ and ε of space can increase toward infinity, but will the m and e of space will never reach infinity???  

· The minimum value of μ and ε is found in free, undisturbed space.  The equation relating the speed of light to  is: c = 1/√με.  Therefore, light will conduct at the maximum speed when the Negative DPs and Positive DPs are in their maximum state of relaxation.  Any disturbance, i.e. imposition of irregularity or ordered pattern due to forces applied to the Dipole Sea by mass or fields will change the ì and å of the Sea, and hence slow the speed of light in that space. ???