The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

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Particle Decay
By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

In another experimental context, the pion is detected as a decay product when a neutron and proton form two protons after they collide in a particle accelerator.  This interaction is consistent with the model of “sharing common particles” mentioned above.  This “exchange force” concept is at the heart of the Standard Model, and has been applied to every aspect of particle theory.  Any interaction can be modeled by a Feynman diagram and the associated “exchange forces”, but the question is whether there is any more fundamental mechanism operating underneath these particle exchanges?

As one aspect of The Theory of Absolutes, we are considering the hypothesis that a large number of Negative DPs and Positive DPs are highly compressed to form the constituent particles of all the subatomic particles: quarks, protons, and pions...  

Problem: What is the force that keeps DPs compressed into a small volume of space when the surrounding volume maintains a relatively small energetic concentration?  Why would not diffusion at the edge of these particles produce evaporation or dissolving of the particle into the Sea?  The endurance of the particle of mass suggests that tightly compressed particles would escape and return to the raw dipole structure of the Dipole Sea unless a strong containing-force acts on the compressed DPs.

Answer: The quantum limits on energetic concentration provide the barriers to dissolving.  Space itself allows various aggregations of energy to exist, and to overcome these allowed states requires a disturbing force to be applied.  Thus, until a force comes to break the particle, it will continue in its stable configuration.

The proposed “Dipole Sea model” incorporates the experimental observations of particle physics, but uses the Negative DPs and Positive DPs as the constituent particles that manifest as the aggregate particles of the Baryon, Meson, and Lepton families of particles.  The DP Sea has a resting inter-particle distance (between the Negative DP and Positive DP), which is disturbed by passing waves and particles.  But, when forces concentrate sufficiently in a space (such as occurs in pair production, particle decay, or particle collision) the inter-particle distance between the positive and negative DPs compresses to form the various entities of the Particle Zoo.  And for a charged particle to form out of a energetic organization of the DPs in a space, it must create a symmetrical particle of opposite charge to retain the original balance of charge in the volume.  An example of this conservation of charge-neutrality is electron-positron Pair Production.

The stability of each of the particles of mass implies that movement between DP configurations (i.e. between different particle manifestations) is subject to an energy barrier.  In the Theory we are examining the hypothesis that this barrier to particle decay is similar to the quantum restrictions of electron orbital energies around the nucleus.  As with other quantum effects, this effect would not be visible at lower energy density phenomenon.  This effect for the maintenance of particle would be a corollary effect to the other quantum effects.  When compression of a space rises above a threshold, the DPs may assemble to produce stable particles of mass.  And, that particle-type may have a number of higher energy states that correspond to that family, such as is seen in the leptons, which include the electron, muon, and tau particles.  

(Note: the stability of some particles (e.g. the muon) may last for only a very short period of time because of the disrupting influences of decay; nevertheless such particles function with all the properties of mass during their brief life).  The type of particles generated by a decay or collision is based upon the condition of space from which they arose.  For example, muons form from the decay of some particles, and in turn decay in a characteristic manner to produce other less energetic particles.  Each decay breaks up the energy into smaller divisions, while collision between particles may convert the kinetic energy into mass-energy and create particles with a larger mass than the sum of the colliding particles.  But regardless of the sequence, energy is concentrated into small volumes that correspond to the allowable quantum states of particulate energy concentration.  This concentration of energy as particles is a type or corollary of the impression of EM force on a local space.  The energy released by a collision or decay of particles will reform and re-aggregate to manifest particles and/or waves according to the quantum states of energy concentration that space will allow.  The result is the lawful expression of the particle zoo, and various forms of wave-type (photon) particles.

The particulate compression of the negative and positive DPs into a volume creates the condition where the particles are stable inside a quantum energy barrier, which keeps the DPs confined into the particle’s volume.  The basic particles, (6 quarks, 3 colors of gluons, and 3 leptons) each exist because of the allowable quanta of energy per volume.  The entire subatomic zoo of over 400 particles arises by the combination of these various elementary particles.

Note: The actual composition of complex particles such as baryons (3 quark particles such as the proton and neutron) or mesons (2 quark particles such as pions, kaons…) may not be quarks and gluons.  Rather, these subatomic particles may be composed of internally complex configurations of DPs in dynamic relationship.  But, when a particle decays or collides, the energy of its internal organization may transform in certain allowable energy steps, which correspond to the energy increments we have categorized as quarks and gluons.  In turn, those energy increments congregate into the allowable particle energy levels which are seen in the bubble chambers and constitute the particle zoo.  Thus, we have deduced an “unseeable-undetectable” internal particulate structure associated by examining the pattern of energies associate with nucleon decay and collision.  And, it may be that this organization of energies that we deduce exists internal to particles may in fact be an artifact that represents the way that particles aggregate when disturbed, rather than representative of their actual internal structure when they are stable.

When quarks and gluons are separated from their own mutually sustaining microenvironment, their continued stable configuration collapses, and these particles aggregate into more stable particles, or decay into less energetic particles and photonic energy assemblies.  The cascade of decay stops when the particles formed by the decay are stable for that environment.  

All subatomic particles are thus composed of DPs that have been compressed to a certain level, and hold an allowable quantum of energy.  And, internal to each subatomic particle is a separation of charge, which in turn gives the ability to store Kinetic Energy Fields in its space, and thus exhibit the properties of mass, such as inertia.  Thus configured, each subatomic particle displays the properties of “mass”.  Thus, each subatomic particle is a compressed DP region that exists as a stable configuration of DPs, able to maintain itself against the forces of internal repulsion and the comparative vacuum or forces of its environment.  The sustaining force that keeps the DPs compressed as its own particular energy concentration and organized as a distinct entity is the quantum energy barrier associated with the rules of space.  The initial compression of DPs that created the particle allows the particle to form.  That particle will stay in existence until an energetic strike/blow/collision/impact (wave or particle) from the surrounding DPs interacts with sufficient energy to place it in an unstable configuration, putting DPs outside of the quantum energy barrier, thereby precipitating decay.

Note Regarding Decay: particles decay spontaneously because of the probabilistic nature of the Uncertainty associated with the displacement of the Central DPs as they form, annihilate and reform.  The displacement of the Central DP to a place outside of the quantum energy barrier for that energy configuration compromises the stability of that energy structure.  The Uncertainty Principle and Schrödinger Wave Equation have been used as high-level abstractions of the underlying particulate mechanisms to successfully predict the probability that a particle may have a particular energy level, and how it may decay.  Again, we shall note that when referring to Uncertainty and probabilistic allowed quantum distributions that we are referring to the randomizing displacement arising from the annihilation and subsequent reforming and thereby displacement of the central organizing DP(s) with a particle.

The phenomenon of a whole particle tunneling out of its point of current stability and energetic confinement can fit into this explanatory mechanism.  There are several possible alternate mechanisms that could be directing this phenomenon:

Alternate 1: There may be an algorithm for uncertainty in position embedded in every particle, possibly related to its local relative velocity.

Alternate 2: This phenomenon of uncertainty may be an artifact of collision and the fluctuations of EM force present at a point due to the chance superimpositions of the EM waves generated throughout the universe.

Alternate 3: Uncertainty may arise due to the unpredictably random recombination of the Central DP(s) constituting a particle with the DPs of the Sea, thus creating a new cohort of DPs around the newly formed Central DP.

Quantum energy levels associated with various levels of DP compression and aggregation provide the energy barriers that allow particles to maintain stability.  That stability is broken by the dissociation of the organizing DPs that compose the particle.  In particular, if the Central DP (and its associated cohort quanta of compressed DPs) jumps outside of the space where the aggregate of constituent complex particles is congregated inside the quantum barrier resonant with that particular particulate energy, then the particle will decay.

Thus, any wave, field, or particulate phenomenon that disturbs the statistical distribution of energy density in the DP Sea could influence the distance that particles jump when they reassemble around a Central DP.  Thus, any number of phenomena could influence the decay rate of an unstable nucleus or particle.  

A well documented phenomena that influences decay rate relativistic speed.  The cosmic rays hitting the earth’s upper atmosphere (e.g. largely protons) form pions, which quickly decay into muons (neutral pion half life: 10-16 sec).  Muons are heavy electrons, with a mass 200 times the mass of a normal electron.  Muons normally decay into an electron plus a neutrino and antineutrino, a decay which would normally occur with a half life of 2.2x10-6 sec.  Muons so formed, traveling at the speed imparted by the collision that formed them, will not have enough time to reach the earth’s surface for detection.  But, because of the high velocity of the pion, the space around the muon is much more highly polarized (energy dense), and hence light travels slower.  As a result, it takes a longer length of absolute time for the statistical chance of a Central DP jump to occur which will be outside of the quantum barrier that maintains the integrity of the Muon.  Thus we see another validation of the adequacy of the Theory of Absolute postulates in supplying a mechanism for the experiments which validate the time dilation of Relativity.

The superimposition of any random EM field energy on the DP Sea, such as the background thermal temperature of the universe, will provide randomizing forces that could jostle the Central DPs of the particles constituting more complex particles (e.g. the quarks constituting a pion).  The result would thus be an increased decay rate.  Thus, by this theoretical construct, we would predict that particles in a EM shielded environment, held at extremely low temperatures, would have a slightly longer decay half life.  

The proton has a net positive charge, which indicates that it is a collection of densely compressed positive and negative DPs, with a net single excess positive DP.  The consistency of this theory with conventional particle physics is seen in the experiment where a high-energy electron collides with the proton.  When they collide, the electron’s net negative DP, and its cohort of densely packed positive and negative DPs, combine in a complex way with the Proton’s complex assemblage of positive and negative DPs, resulting in the neutralization of the Proton’s positive charge.  In Standard Model Terms, an Up is converted to a Down quark, which is a shorthand method of saying that one complex positive and negative DP assemblage was converted into another.  The overall effect was that the introduction of the electron’s net negative DP and its DP cohort transformed an Up Quark into a Down quark, resulting in a neutralization of the proton’s positive charge, and its conversion into a neutron.  

The neutron may thus be a roughly spherical collection of closely packed positive and negative DPs, with an internal structure composed of an assemblage of quarks and gluons that continually inter-convert between each other.  The internal structures, once formed, maintain their configuration due to the quantum energy barriers on the sub-nucleon level that allow for its particular size and energy configuration.  Thus, all the quark-composed subatomic particles, such as the proton and neutron, are likely a complex soup of interacting foci as described by the interaction of quarks and gluons in the Standard Model.  

Thus, when an electron collides with a proton, its charge and DP organizational energy is incorporated into the DP-structure of the proton.  There is a reorganization of the DP-configurations within the proton.  The net effect is the neutralizing of both the electron proton’s charge, transforming the assembly from a proton into a neutron.

When confronting a physicist with the obvious observation that a neutron is just a proton with an extra electron, the immediate rebuttal will be that the substructure of the neutron and positron are fundamentally different.  The neutron and proton have a different combination of types of quarks.  This may in fact be true since different types of particles appear when they collide or decay.  It is possible that there is no quark ultrastructure composing the proton, neutron, etc.  But, it is more likely that there are subdivisions of particles such as quarks and gluons that make up the more complex baryons (e.g. neutrons) and mesons (e.g. pions).  And, that the quarks are in turn composed of the smallest particles, to form high density aggregations of Negative DPs and Positive DPs.  Each layer of particle aggregation has a level of stability because of the quantum energy barriers associated with the allowable DP concentration configurations.  We shall use this postulate of the compressed DP sub-structure as the working hypothesis to understand the interactions of the entire subatomic zoo.  

The next question is, “how do the particles of various types hold together?”  Conventional physics has postulated that there are 4 types of force: Gravity, Electromagnetism, the Weak Force, and the Strong Force.  In the Theory of Absolutes, we have postulated that there may be only 3 Forces: Electrical Force, Magnetic Force, and Gravity.  To validate this hypothesis we will attempt to show that the Weak Force and Strong Force may both be manifestations of the Electromagnetic force.  

Conventional physics theory has been searching for a Unified Field Theory.  This search is based upon the assumption that a theory that all particles and fields arise from a common origin gives evidence of a primal unity of all of creation.  And, that such a theory would give evidence of its own validity.  It is intuitively satisfying to assume that a creation based on laws, and that showed evidence of starting from a common point, would have a theoretical underpinning that described the common origin of all particles and forces.

Thus, the Theory of Absolutes postulates, which hypothesize such a unity of forces, provides a theory which may be correct, due to its simplicity and unity of principle which brings forth all phenomenon.