Nuclear Stability: The Alpha Particle is one of the stable configurations of the nuclear structure. The Alpha Particle is a Helium nucleus (2He4), which has 4 nucleons (2 protons and 2 neutrons) stacked in a way to separate and buffer the repulsive positive charges of the protons. The Helium nucleus can hold a few more neutrons, and one less, than the symmetrical 2+2 Helium nucleus configuration, but this nucleus will be less stable – more likely to decay. In general, if an isotope has more protons than neutrons, that isotope will be more likely to decay by positron Beta Decay, which will turn a proton into a neutron, during which transformation it emits a positron and neutrino. If the Isotope has too many neutrons in comparison to its protons, one of the neutrons may not retain its stability and decay into a proton by Electron Beta Decay (note: Electron Capture will also turn a neutron into a proton). The decay of protons and neutrons in nuclei occurs because of the quantum mechanical uncertainty in the position of the structures (quarks and their composite DPs) inside the nucleons. Nuclear bonding is produced by the mutual sharing of the quarks composing the protons and neutrons. This bond of shared quarks produces a stable configuration when the nuclear Proton:Neutron ratio is proper. But, when the ratio is too high or low, the displacement available to the quarks by quantum fluctuation increases. As a result, the frequency of the displacement being outside of the bonding distance will increase, and the rate of decay will increase.
Nuclear Decay: Gamma Ray ( ray) Production: rays are created by nuclear orbital drops. When a neutron or other fast particle hits the nucleus, there is an increase in the activation energy of the nucleus. An equivalent amount of energy will be released when the activated state decays. Most energy released by the nucleus is as a ray since this is the unit of energy stored by stable nuclear displacements. These could be called Isomeric Transformations because they are the result of the change of position of the neutrons and protons in relation to each other.
Positron Beta Decay: A proton converts into a neutron during decay when it is in a nuclear configuration which will favor the release of energy by this conversion. The increased mass required in the conversion of a proton to a neutron is supplied by the conversion of the organizational energy of the DPs stored in the tensioned space of the original higher energy nucleus (which decayed into the configuration of a lower energy, less stressed space, which was the motive force for decay). Thus, the quarks composing the newly formed neutron will be formed de novo out of the bonding energy previously stored in the higher energy nuclear bond configuration. This illustrates the reality of creating quarks out of the energy held in “stressed space”. Organized space can be held in any configuration.
Electron Beta Decay: When a neutron is separated from the stabilizing influence of a proton, such as being alone in free flight, or in a excessively high neutron:proton ratio, the neutron will decay into a proton, electron, and neutrino. The neutron contains a higher total mass energy equivalent than the proton, and hence the transformation from neutron to proton is energetically favorable, and manifests by the emission of an electron and neutrino from the quark soup of the neutron. Organizational energy barriers prevent instantaneous transformation from neutron to proton, because quarks composing the neutron are held in a stable configuration by attractive forces, which is the barrier preventing spontaneous decay to the lower energy proton. Thus, to overcome the barrier of attraction associated with neutron internal organization, energy must be supplied to the neutron through particle or photon collision. Such influx of energy gives the equivalent of thermal energy on a subatomic scale to stretch bonds by giving added kinetic energy (and hence displacement from the core of attraction) to the constituent quarks organizational structures. The result is the provision of adequate activation energy to separate congealed DP organization sufficiently to wrest them from the bonds of the neutron’s organizational energy well. And, given that a neutron will decay spontaneously, without the aid of added energetic input, we note that the statistical spatial redistribution of energy due to the quantum fluctuations in position of the quark allows for the internal quark structure to occasionally, by the Schroedinger wave equation statistics, to find themselves at a displacement that allows them to be de-bonded. The quark energy parcels now freed from the neutron are able to reorganize themselves into new energetic structures that are stable inside their new un-bonded environment. Likewise, the remaining quotient of quark structures left inside of the decayed neutron reorganize to take the form and properties of a proton.
Electron Capture: When an electron from the inner shell of an atom collides with a proton, the quantum of Dipole Sea organization introduced by the electron, adds to the internal quark structure of the proton, which then reorganizes into a new stable configuration of quarks, which is the neutron. The addition of the electron’s mass, kinetic, and spin energy will not match the exact requirements of energetic stability to form a ground state neutron, thus the proton - electron complex formed at the moment of capture will release as a neutrino the excess energy associated with the differential between activation and ground level, and at new stable configuration as a neutron.
Strong Force: The Strong Force is a force-distance artifact arising from the underlying geometry and dynamics of the DPs composing the quarks that compose the neutron and proton as they interact in the nucleus. The Strong Force appears to be the motive force which overcomes the EM repulsive forces between protons by a “strong force” proton-neutron bonding. But, it is unnecessary to postulate a new force when the DP charges composing the quarks can produce the observed force using only the well-understood force distance relationship associated with the electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged DPs. The neutron and the proton are both composed of quarks, which are composed of DPs in some type of rotation and/or position exchange which maintains their integrity as a spatial energy structure internal to the nucleons. All nuclei heavier than Hydrogen contain multiple protons and neutrons, and the bonded transformation that occurs between neutrons and protons in the nucleus allows the close approximation of protons that would in their concentrated and isolated state produce a huge proton-proton repulsive force. The exchange of groups of DPs as quarks, between neutron and proton allow for the distribution of charge and force in a rapid dynamic modification of shape and type, which effectively neutralizes the displacement force that would act between the net positive charges contained within the nucleus. The result of this dynamic shell game, of movement and shielding, is to create an effect which corresponds to the appearance of a force which would be large in the case of the isolated protons, and thus appears to be a “strong force”. But, in fact there is no actual, God declared, “Strong Force” that prevents the repulsion of protons in close proximity, rather the repulsion is mitigated by the intermediate reaction with bonded neutrons. The Quarks intermediating the bonding of neutron and proton become part of a new larger synthetic integrated complex particulate entity. This new proton-neutron complex has its own stability associated with its energy barriers and half life associated with the constituent particulate displacement associated with quantum fluctuation in position. The unit of particle exchange in this larger proton-neutron entity is the pion, which is simply to note that because of the geometry of the particles, and the charge distribution, the actual force holding the quarks, neutrons, and protons together is actually a net electrostatic attraction sufficient to maintain the proximate relationship of this grouping of energy-particle concentration.
Weak Force: An experimental concept introduced to explain the processes which are involved in the decay and transformation between various subatomic particles. The process of proton-proton collision, Meson collisions, Electron and Positron Beta Decay, and Electron Capture are all explained using the Weak Force. The weak force has been shown to be a subset of the Electromagnetic field (now called the electro-weak force), which moves us toward the initial plausibility in the assertion that the “Weak Force” is not an elemental, God declared, unique force of nature. The above interactions, which have been attributed to the “weak force”, are transformations between particle-type that are mediated by particles of various energy-particle concentrations (the W and Z particles). These particles represent a bolus of DPs that have changed position and configuration, and in the process, a transformation of particle-type resulted. Because of the new charge-space distribution in the resultant particles, the previously stable structures repelled as decay products with a new configuration, having a different character and type. Hence, the weak force interaction describes the mechanism by which particles change type due to the energy-force instabilities introduced within a particle due to collision or quantum displacement of the constituent elements of a particle. The weak force is therefore not a force at all, but simply a type of transformation due to this method of internal particle (quark/gluon) exchange, addition, and removal.