The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND


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Maxwell’s Equations
By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND



Maxwell’s 4 Equations (differential form):

  1. å div E = ñ
  2. div B = 0
  3. curl B = ì (J + å ∂E/∂t)
  4. curl E = -∂B/∂t


Maxwell’s 4 Equations (Integral Form):

  1. å (closed surface integral) E∙dS = q
  2. (closed surface integral) B ∙ dS = 0
  3. (closed line integral) B ∙ dl = ì(i + å dÖE/dt)
  4. (closed line integral) E ∙ dl = -dÖB/dt