﻿ Lenz's Law

The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Lenz’s Law
By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

Changing the rate of current flow causes a change in the steady state magnetic field around an electric current in a wire.  A drop in the voltage driving the current will cause a decrease in the current flow, and will reduce the presence of electrons moving in the wire.  In turn, the positive and negative DPs surrounding the wire will move toward their electrical and magnetic random rest positions.  The concentration of positive DPs in the inner regions close to the electron current flow will decrease, as will the concentration of negative charges in the regions away from the electron current flow.  And the intensity of current decreases, the N/S alignment of the magnetic poles of the particles in those regions will reduce because of the reduction of the magnetic force produced by the moving charges.  But, the discharging magnetic field produces an E field that accelerates the charges in the direction to maintain current.  This is the classic effect of Lenz’s law, to oppose any change in current, rise or fall.  The connection between current and magnetic field is the basis for the storage of energy in an inductor.  A rising current is opposed in its rise by an E field generated by the changing magnetic field that drives current in a direction opposite to the rise.  And a falling current is opposed by the collapse of the magnetic field, which produces an E field that drives current to continue in the same direction.  The connection between the magnetic field and the electric field can be modeled as though space were an inductor and capacitor that trade energy back and forth between these two circuit elements.  When current is rising in a wire, the rising current can be thought of as coming from a charged capacitor (i.e. the voltage source) that is beginning its discharge into an inductor (i.e. the wire at zero current).  The inductor will resist the increase in current by forming an E field that points in the opposite direction, opposing the flow of current.  When the current is beginning to fall in a wire (i.e. the wire at full current), the situation can be thought of as a charged inductor beginning its discharge, resulting in a collapsing B field, which produces an E field that continues to drive current, and thus opposes the drop in current coming from the capacitor (i.e. the dropping voltage from the voltage source).  But, such an explanation is a high level model, or metaphor, rather than a mechanistic description of the interaction of the underlying particles that mediate the actual effect.  Thus, the real question is what is the sequence of movement of DPs (electrically and magnetically) and the associated generation of fields to oppose the change in current.  This phenomenon is this same effect that mediates the storage of kinetic energy in a moving mass.  Bringing the analysis down to its most elemental level, a change in the magnetic orientation of a DP causes the DP to produce a directional E field perpendicular to the collapsing (or building) B field.  As such, this would require the DPs to raise or lower their fields by increasing or decreasing their output of FPs in a particular direction and polarity.  In the case of a rising or lowering E field, due to the rise or drop in current, the magnetic poles of the DPs orient appropriately to that increase or decrease.  Likewise, an increase or decrease in magnetic field will result in a directional E field output in FPs that will correspond to the appropriate electrical response to the change in magnetic field.  The net effect of this directional electrical and magnetic FP emission is to create the effects seen in the electromagnetic interplay.  The foundational interrelationship is a changing E field creating a B field, and, a changing B field creating an opposing E field.  As expressed here, the effect is mediated on a DP level as a rule of action by the DP, rather than as an effect seen as a result of aggregated action.