The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND


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Fermion & Boson

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND


A particle with an angular momentum with integer multiples of ħ/2 is called a Fermion, and it includes such particles as the electron, proton, and neutron.  Fermions are defined as particles that cannot occupy the same quantum number energy level as another Fermion.  We see the clearest evidence of such behavior in the electron orbitals, which has 2 electrons with the same angular momentum but opposite spin, which allows them to occupy the same orbital.  This consideration of a Fermion having a spin of ħ/2 puts it in the same category as a particle, since all other photons have a spin with multiples of ħ.  This characteristic makes it look suspiciously like a particle, although its speed of light velocity, makes it almost certainly a photon-like wave.


Bosons, are the opposite type of particle, and do not have the same restriction of space occupation with particles of that have angular momentums equal to integer multiples of ħ.  (Note: ħ = Planck’s constant/2π.)