The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

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Dipole Particles

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

1) The Dipole Particles (DPs) are the fundamental charged particles. They are capable of movement, but are stationary and fall into a cubic packed configuration like Na+ and Cl- ions in a salt crystal, when not pressed to move by a field. The DPs carry either a positive or negative charge polarity, and hence shall be called positive and negative Dipole Particles.

a) The negative DPs and positive DPs are points of consciousness, and can move in relationship to each other, as opposed to the Grid Points which are stationary.

i) The DPs move in relationship to a Matrix of stationary point called the Grid Points, which form the distance markers of the Absolute frame of reference. The DPs move in response to a net number of Force Particles in a particular direction. The distance moved is measured in terms of Grid Points, and force particles accelerate from the current velocity.

(1) The Dipole Particles could use an alternate reference frame to judge distance and regulate velocity. The average space between Dipoles in the Dipole Sea could be used as the reference-metric of distance. By using the entire universe as the standard by which the smallest unit is judged, the standard of distance, the concept of distance is given meaning even in the pure empty void of the mind.

(2) But, in explaining the theory, we shall not use the “average DP inter-space distance”. Rather we shall examine the Theory using the more concrete Grid Points. Either way, the Theory is built upon an absolute framework of distance – the Grid Points, or the average DP-Interspace distance. The Gridpoint distance is concrete, easy to visualize, and provides a local marker. Thus, the Grid Points will be used in the Theory. Either way, the Theory is unchanged by the choice of distance standard.

b) The positive and negative DPs are not what we recognize as electrons or positrons. The positive and negative DPs are the sub-particulate components of particles of mass such as electrons, protons, neutrons, pions, and the entire subatomic zoo of mesons, hadrons, and leptons.

i) Mass (e.g. an electron and positron) is formed when a pair of positive and negative DPs are given enough energy (i.e. an adequate force applied over a distance) to separate them sufficiently from their point of resting equilibrium in the Dipole Sea.

ii) When separated, the positive DP and negative DPs form the central seed around which an electron and a positron form. The central negative DP attracts a layer of positive DPs, and outside of that forms a layer of Negative DPs. Thus a roughly 3-layer structure forms to create an electron. The same method forms the positron around a free central positive DP. This 3-layer composite of DPs forms an electron and positron.

c) In undisturbed space (containing neither mass nor fields) the Dipole Particles (the positive and negative DPs) arrange themselves as alternating charges to form a perfect crystalline structure.

i) The positive and negative DPs arrange in a 3D order similar to the shared 6 bonds of the Na+ and Cl- ionic bonds in salt crystals. As a result, any large volume of space would contain equal numbers of positive and negative charges, thus creating an electrically neutral space.

d) The magnetic orientation of each of the positive and negative DPs is random in neutral, field free, at-rest space.

i) Every DP has a magnetic pole that points north and south. Each DP communicates its polar orientation by radiating a magnetic field in the form of Force Particles (FPs). Each FP radiating from the DP is communicating a particular Field direction at every angle , from north to south. The effect is to create the classically seen iso-intensity field lines of magnetic force seen drawn around a magnet.

ii) The effect of the magnetic field (i.e. communicated via the FPs) is to rotate and align DPs in its path with via the magnetic force mediated by the FPs. Again the FPs communicate a message to move, and the DPs respond by moving.

(1) Note that the action of every DP is full duplex. Each source DP sends out FPs that act upon target particles at a distance, but those target particles are also sending out FPs which act on the source particle. Thus there is only an arbitrary choice of reference frame distinction between target and source particle; both radiate, and both act upon each other with force.

(2) The result will be that both DPs will rotate and change their orientation based upon the magnetic force they exert on each other. But, as soon as they move, those “rotated DPs” will then send out new FPs, which will carry that new polar orientation and cause other DPs to move according to it.

(3) Thus, every DP movement causes movement of target DPs at a distance, and that movement of the target causes movement of the source. This movement causing movement causing the source to move is iterative, becoming less at each cycle of the iteration. The speed of light of travel causes a lag between action and reaction.

(4) The FP once released is not altered in its direction from origin to infinity, but its speed of transit is altered because it is absorbed and reemitted according to the limits and requirements of the local absolute speed of light.

(5) In effect every DP lies in an environment that makes it both a capacitor and inductor. The Dipole Sea by its very nature is a sea of charge separation, and magnetic orientation.

(a) The DP processes the energy represented by the FP’s electrical and magnetic force. The total number of FP-DP interactions associated with the incremental advancement of the FP each moment is always equal to the number encountered in unstressed space.

(i) The reduction in momentary transit increment is thus related to the magnetic pole and charge effects in the local space, which in turn give the appearance of space acting like a micro “Tank Circuit”.

(ii) Note: The Tank Circuit is an inductor and capacitor in parallel. This circuit has the characteristic rate of passing energy back and forth between these two circuit element types. The rate of oscillation of energy between the inductor and capacitor is related to the inductance and capacitance by the product of the Inductance and Capacitance = LC.

(b) Evidence of this inductive and capacitive nature of space is contained in the units describing the electrical permittivity () and magnetic permeability () of space, and the relationship of these two parameters to the speed of light in that space:

(i) Space has an inductive nature as measured by the units describing the electrical nature of space: ( - Henrys/meter),

(ii) Space has a capacitive nature: ( - Farads/meter).

(iii) The interplay and transfer of energy between the inductive/magnetic energy and the capacitive/electrical energy determines the rate at which light travels through space: c = 1/.

(iv) Again, it is the local magnetic (inductive) and electrical (capacitive) characteristics of that space which determine the local speed of light. We see this clearly indicated as the determinant factor by the equation c=1/, which clearly reflects reality in terms of being able to predict the speed of light in a volume of space. The units of are Henry’s/meter, where a Henry is the unit of inductance, and is in units of Farads/meter, where the Farad is the unit of capacitance.

1. Inductance is the magnetic property related to storing energy in the form of magnetic orientation of poles.

2. Capacitance is the electrical property related to storing energy as charge separation.

3. The DPs form a system of charged particles which can have electrical separation, and magnetic orientation. The rate of advance of the Force Particles is thus modified by their interactions DPs, and the rate of passage through the DPs is dependent upon the amount of Electromagnetic stress that DP is under.

e) Since every DP has a magnetic pole, the passage of an FP through the space of a DP will exert a force of rotation to align that DP’s pole with the incoming FP. And, the net direction and rotation of the DP is in proportion to the sum of the forces provided by all of the FPs present in the “detection/influence-volume”, which is the “quantum space” of the DP.

i) As the FP passes through the quantum space of the DP, that passage does not change the magnetic orientation, electrical polarity, nor energy associated with the FP. Rather, the DP merely processes each FP and re-emits it in a time delayed manner in accord with the of the space through which it is traveling.

ii) Space, in its rest state, contains no energy. But, space in a resting state is only a theoretical concept because the thermal motion of mass, and the background EM field of the universe already energize space. We cannot create such a de-energized space, as it is an unattainable state, as declared by the Third Law of Thermodynamics. We cannot conduct any finite number of physical processes to reach such a state as declared by the Third Law of Thermodynamics. The 3rd law is true because physical processes are required to extract energy from a space, and there will always be a percentage of the energy that is used in the extraction process which will be left behind; such is the nature of collisions. Nevertheless, we can envision the concept of an energy-free space. The magnetic poles of the DPs in a zero energy, at-rest space, would have a stable orientation, and be randomly pointed so as to create a net zero pole-rotational force acting on each DP.

iii) The resting state of the space contains no energy; this is the energetic ground state of the universe. In it the electrical poles achieve equidistance, and the DP magnetic poles are oriented so that there is a stable orientation and no net rotation force on DP magnetic poles. Such a state will only exist in the pre-creation void, where there are no EM fields, or points of DP concentration into mass or waves. Once there is a disturbance anywhere in the universe, the web of the entire universe will eventually be bent by its influence. Thus, the energy-free space is only a conceptual ideal, not an experimental reality.

iv) There are theories about a “zero point energy” and talk of the universe having a large amount of energy stored in space. I believe that such theories are incorrect, to the extent that we are talking about the resting state of the universe. Of course, the total EM energy passing through space has an energy, although disoriented. But, disorganized ElectroMagnetic field energies are the EM equivalent of thermal energy. Such energy is essentially the exhaust ash of collisions, and has very little utility.

v) Space with a zero-energy content is its natural resting state, but can only exist when no external fields or mass pass through it. But, equidistant charges, and magnetic pole rest-equilibrium is a theoretical state which will never be achieved in the real world that contains particles and fields.

f) When energy is introduced into a volume of space, the location of each of the Dipole Particles becomes uncertain. The most obvious example of this is seen in the case of the unpaired central DP around which an electron or positron is organized. When force acts on DPs, the particles move, and inherent to that movement is an uncertainty in the location of the Central DP. The negative Central DP can be juxtaposed with a positive DP in the space into which it moved after a moment of movement. This juxtaposition could render the central DP neutral, and hence incapable of organizing the 3 layer charge structure of an electron. Thus, another negative DP at some point within the charge structure of the electron could be sufficiently separated from the other charges to be the point of organizing attraction to reform the layered charge structure. Thus, the jumping around associated with the statistical distribution of the de Broglie wave of mass, and the Schrödinger wave equation of the electron in an orbital. This distribution of the particle over space can occur because every particle of mass (charged or uncharged) has within it an unpaired central DP. The greater the momentum of a particle, the greater the distribution of the particle between moments.

i) But, an even more fundamental process is operating to create an indefinite location to a particle. The very nature of velocity, and the fact that the particle “jumps around” makes the uncertainty trade between position and momentum, such that when the particle’s position is completely defined, the momentum of the particle is totally undefined.

ii) Consider the case where we locate an electron’s central DP and its surrounding DPs at a single Moment. Since we have precisely located that particle, we obviously know its position. But, because the particle’s location was identified at a single Moment, the velocity is totally uncertain. Two points, over a know number of moments defines the velocity. Thus, in this case the position is highly defined, but the velocity is poorly defined.

iii) Momentum, is defined as mv = m∙(x/t), and the velocity term only has meaning when there is a change of position that has occurred between two or more Moments.

iv) But, the electron “jumps” from Moment to Moment because of the neutralization and reformation of the electron around a new central DP each Moment. Thus, the distance the electron travels is somewhat variable between any two moments. But, over a sufficiently large period of time, the variability in dx/dt associated with the “jumping around” was made small in comparison to the distance traveled during that period. Thus, over a long period of time, the velocity is well defined, but the position is totally undefined.

v) The Central DP jumps from location to location on a Moment-to-Moment basis, thus the change in position of the central DP between any two moments is only partly related to the average momentum of the overall mass.

vi) Thus, momentum is totally undefined if the position is precisely defined. When computing the uncertainty of a particle, the mass must be taken into consideration because the DPs constituting the mass are all potential candidates for enrollment as the new central DP at each moment. Thus, the larger the number of the DPs associated with the mass, the smaller possibility for “jumping” movement of the entire complex particle. Larger masses have larger numbers of constituent DPs, all of which must maintain their configuration to retain their structure as mass. Thus, ever-larger masses have ever-smaller amounts of possible variability (uncertainty) in their position.

vii) Conversely, the smallest “mass”, a single DP in motion, could be relocated over a large distance in the next moment. Thus, there appears to be a communication, or connection of sorts between particles that is not related to FPs. This phenomenon is possibly illustrated by photonic entanglement experiments (Bell’s Theorem) which appear to indicate a faster than light communication phenomenon between groups of particles that have established a relationship. If such a communication method exists, then there may be an overlay of communication between groups of particles which communicate not only by the ordinary methods of FP information transfer, but by direct group communication.

viii) This concept of entanglement and group consciousness would explain how a particle such as a neutron could maintain its identity as a 1 GeV mass equivalent, when it has within itself the random appearance of an 80 GeV W particle. The statistics of uncertainty allow a restricted movement of the DPs that compose a mass. In the case of the formation of the W particle, its half life is only 10-10 second, so if the W does not form outside of the neutron’s energy well, it will not decay. But, every 10 minutes, the statistics of recombination of possible organizations of DPs allows for the formation of a W particle outside of the neutron’s energy well, and the result is that the W does not collapse back into the structure of the neutron. Instead, the W decays into a neutrino and electron, and returning its remnant to the neutron, which as a result of this loss of energy has become a proton. The point of this analysis is to note that every collection of particles has a group consciousness once it has become entangled. In particle physics, the entanglement associated with becoming a particle is simply to have the appropriate DPs assemble so as to become one of the allowable configurations of the particle zoo. Particle or wave entanglement can be broken by collisions that overcome activation energies. Thus, entanglement is one of the phenomena governing the behavior of every particle assembly. In human terms, entanglement arises by giving attention, and broken by the intention to disentangle and separate.

ix) The DPs composing a particle extend to infinity, albeit weakly at significant distances compared to its radius.

x) When a particle’s momentum (momentum = mv) is precisely defined, then its position is unknown to the degree of the increment of time over which the velocity was measured. Thus, precise knowledge of position at any one moment makes momentum completely uncertain.

xi) When forces act upon a particle, they produce movement, which produces the interaction with other DPs, which produces the delocalization.

xii) The confinement of a particle to a particular space corresponds to its energy. Thus, the proton and neutron have a diameter of approximately 10-15 meters, which corresponds to a mass equivalent energy of about 1 GeV.

xiii) The neutron can decay if left alone unbound to a proton, this is because the substructures internal to the neutron (and all other particles) are not static. There are various modes of mass (particle) aggregation that are allowed, and in turn have allowed decay modes. Thus, when a portion of the energy associated with the neutron aggregates to form a W particle (with 80 GeV mass for a maximum of 10-10 second) that particle can decay into an electron and neutrino, and converting the neutron remnant into a proton. This mode of decay, via the intermediate conformation of the W particle (intermediate vector boson), is known as the Weak Force, since it is supposedly by the force of this exchange particle that the neutron decayed.

xiv) But, the Weak Force formation of the W particle is simply a short term assembly of DPs that corresponds to a particulate assembly of energy in a space. It is not an energy that can be conserved because it is simply a chance momentary assembly of DPs associated with the mass. The decay of a neutron into a proton, electron, and neutrino is the result of a portion of the DPs forming the neutron assembling into a W particle at a position outside the energy well of particulate stability. This is essentially a tunneling phenomenon, and the formation of a W particle at various locations in or around the neutron is one of the possible modes of DP aggregation in which the neutron DPs can assemble.

xv) Neutron decay, with the intermediate formation of the W particle, argues strongly for the theory that mass has a degree of uncertainty associated with all the DPs that constitute it. The DPs are distributed and formed into various aggregates according to the uncertainty statistics. It appears that simply having an assembly of DPs as a mass, or any other organization (e.g. photon or field), will allow that DPs constituting that organization to be subject to the uncertainty of position, both as components and as a whole. Therefore, in this universe where energy is always flowing through every volume of space (even if it is only the 3 Kelvin background radiation of space), every DP will have a delocalized nature. And, the uncertainty of a particle’s position means that it can occupy a different position within its given quantum of volume at every moment. Some of its positions of location are more probable than others, and it is this probability of position that gives the concept that the particle is a wave. Particles are not waves, but they do interact with other particles in a wavelike distribution frequency because each particle has a wavelike distribution of location. Thus, the appearance of being a wave, and having behaviors that have elements of wavelike-ness.

xvi) In the case of a moving particle, the positional variation of the DP will cause the source point of the Force Particles emanating from it to be randomized around a locus of travel as it moves from point A to point B. Each DP has its own point of radiation of FPs at each moment, and if the DP is moving, then there will be a change in the point of origin of the FPs around the straight line trajectory of the DP.

xvii) A mass has an inherent nature which produces this particulate delocalization. Thus, no motion is required for a mass to be subject to the uncertainty principle. As a result, even a mass at rest with reference to the Absolute frame will be subject to the random wavelike distribution of its position, even though it has no momentum. The forces holding the mass authorize DP movement of the uncertainty-type, and thus produce an uncertainty in the position of the DPs constituting a complex particle. Thus, any aggregate particle will have a positional uncertainty if it contains an assembly of DPs. Thus, electrons, protons, and other particles constituting subatomic and atomic mass will all exhibit the effect of “jumping” around both when stationary and while moving. ???

xviii) The equations: ∆x∙∆p = ħ/2, and E∙t = ħ/2 reflect the uncertainty in position of a particle of mass. The mass of a particle confined to a particular location is thus limited by the amount of mass energy associated with the mass energy of a particle.

xix) One explanation that rationalizes the uncertainty in position of the particle is to model the particle as a wave. And, given the uncertainty in position of the aggregate particle due to the uncertainty of the underlying constituent DPs, it will be possible to define the probability of the location of a particle using a sum of a series of waves to define the probability of location of the particle at any one point. This does not mean that the particle is a wave, but it certainly does indicate that there is a probability of its location and that it can be defined using wave analysis.

xx) This same probability of location is used in defining the location of the electron in its various orbitals. Again, the fact that the Schroedinger wave equation is useful defining the probabilities that it can be found in a particular location at any one time in the orbital does not make the electron a wave. Just as the fact that a packet of a photon interacting with a discrete packet-like effect does not prove that the photon is a particle.

xxi) When analyzing mass, with relationship to the Uncertainty Principle equation, we note that the p term can be expanded to p = (mv), which means that the mass itself can be written as the equivalent to a certain amount of momentum or energy.

http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/Hbase/uncer.html#c1

xxii) Energy being held by the DPs (as mass, velocity, or fields) will cause an uncertainty in position associated with the affected DPs. Only when there is no energy in the Sea (i.e. at total rest, and without mass or fields), is there complete certainty in the position of the DPs, but this is trivial since there is no one, and nothing to observe that space, and if observation was ever done, it would disturb the space and the position would be uncertain.

xxiii) When energy is held by the DPs, the uncertainty of DP position will automatically introduce a chaotic rotational magnetic force to the surrounding DP magnetic poles, and translational electric forces acting upon the surrounding positive and negative DPs. Every chaotic system has attractors, or focal points of stability or resonance states. For example charge and magnetic equilibrium manifest such phenomena as mass, orbitals, standing waves, black body radiation, and photons.

xxiv) Again, the only case where the quantum/uncertainty phenomena do not manifest is in mass-free and field-free space. A sufficiently large volume of space would contain enough magnetic poles pointed in random orientation to produce a net cancellation of magnetic field, thus creating the observed magnetically and electrically neutral space.

g) The background sea of Dipole Particles shall be called the Dipole Sea.

i) The Dipole Sea is the ground substance of space composed of Dipole Particles (DPs), which can be aggregated and organized into various forms of electrical charge, and magnetic pole order to compose the various forms of energy (e.g. mass, photons, EM waves, Kinetic Energy, and the multitudinous forms of potential energy).

ii) The defining feature of “energy” is “Any organization of Dipole Particles other than the perfect order of the undisturbed Dipole Sea.”

iii) All energetic structures such as moving mass, mass itself, electromagnetic waves, compressed or tensioned matter, stored capacitive and inductive energy, etc will transfer their organization to a space with lesser organization after overcoming the energy barrier that keeps that structure organized. A collision may supply the needed activation energy to overcome an energy barrier, or in the case of subatomic particles the barrier may be passed by tunneling.

iv) Energy diffuses, moves, flows from volumes of high order to volumes of low order. Thermodynamic equilibrium is attained when heat (rapidly moving particles) come in contact with a volume of low thermal content. The exchange of thermodynamic energy is of course a collision-based system. In isotropic systems, a volume of high thermal energy will transfer energy by collision within a gas, liquid, and solid without barriers. In such open boundary conditions the collision and gradient flow of energy from high to low continues until the entire volume has reached thermal equilibrium.

v) In inhomogeneous systems, the rate of energy transfer may vary significantly. Volumes of slow energy transfer are called insulators. These substances, such as rubber and plastic, have a poor connection between molecules of the substance. Thus, collision between the high thermal energy media and the insulator result in inelastic collisions, converting the collision into radiant energy.

vi) Thermodynamic law is not a fundamental rule of nature. Rather, it is merely a descriptive rule that describes the macroscopic level aggregate behavior of a large number of colliding particles, each with its own energy. The actual underlying processes of collision are mediated by the forces carried by the FPs. When the collision occurs, if a net force is produced in the direction of the incoming particle, the target moves and accepts some or all of the incoming energy. In an isotropic substance, a high velocity particle colliding with a low velocity particle causes a tranfer of some energy, the high energy particle losing some, and the lower energy particle gaining some. This process of energy transfer from high to low continues until thermal equilibrium is established. But even in thermal equilibrium, all particles do not have the same kinetic energy, rather there is a spectrum of velocities associated with the way that thermal systems distribute energy. In thermal equilibrium, the velocity distribution remains the same, but different particles carry the various energies at each moment.

The Matrix Grid Points are the measure of distance and quantum increments:

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Photon Reflection 1 |

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Refraction 2 |

Compton Scattering |

Wave Particle Duality 2 |

Wave Particle Duality 3 |

Dipole Sea Structure |

Dipole Sea & Ether Theory |

Dipole Sea & Energy Xfer |

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Battery Energy Storage |

Electromagnetic Concepts 2 |

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Wave Particle Duality |

Uncertainty Principle2 |

DeBroglie Wavelength |

Lesson 1 |

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Ecumenical Solution |

Neutral Space |

Force Particles 2 |

Force |

Time 2 |

Time 3 |

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Acceleration |

Energy 2 |

Kinetic Energy 2 |

Kinetic Energy 3 |

Kinetic Energy 4 |

Kinetic Energy 5 |

Kinetic Energy 7 |

Kinetic Energy 8 |

Momentum & KE |

Momentum, KE & Inertia |

Speed of Light 2 |

Photon Velocity |

Force Particle Velocity |

Mass 2 |

Mass 3 |

Mass 4 |

Mass & Fields |

Two Wires with Current |

Dynamic Magnetic Fields |

Current Flow |

Fields & Moving Charge |

Moving Charge Effects |

Magnetic Induction |

Lenz's Law |

Field Energy |

Sub-Nuclear Forces |

The Strong Force |

Special Relativity & MMX |

Sound and Light Compared |

Neutral Space |

Neutral Space |

Force Particles 2 |

Force |

Time 2 |

Time 3 |

Grid Points |

Acceleration |

Energy 2 |

Kinetic Energy 2 |

Kinetic Energy 3 |

Kinetic Energy 4 |

Kinetic Energy 5 |

Kinetic Energy 7 |

Kinetic Energy 8 |

Momentum & KE |

Momentum, KE & Inertia |

Speed of Light 2 |

Photon Velocity |

Force Particle Velocity |

Mass 2 |

Mass 3 |

Mass 4 |

Mass & Fields |

Two Wires with Current |

Dynamic Magnetic Fields |

Current Flow |

Fields & Moving Charge |

Moving Charge Effects |

Magnetic Induction |

Lenz's Law |

Field Energy |

Sub-Nuclear Forces |

The Strong Force |

Special Relativity & MMX |

Sound and Light Compared |