The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

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Current Flow

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

a) A current of negative charge (electrons) flowing through a wire will attract positive DPs, and repel negative DPs.

b) In a metal, with full electron orbitals, “holes” flow in one direction, and electrons flow in the other.  The holes are positive in a conducting metal because there is a net positive charge in the space left due to the fact that they are a space where the electron is deficient.  

c) Electrons are negative and flow in the opposite direction to hole-flow.  In a metal, the electrons are actual particles which flow, but their movement creates the space (hole) in the sea of electrons in the metallic lattice which creates the effect of hole-flow.  

d) The electrons have mass, require acceleration, and flow into a space against a force.  Nevertheless, hole movement requires force and energy expenditure, simply because hole movement requires electron acceleration.  Thus, while the holes are not particles per se, they are an intrinsic effect produced by electron motion.  Thus, electron current flow includes an alternation of charge, in a particular space along the locus of current travel, i.e. a region of positive charge, next to a region of negative charge.  As the electron advances, the hole forms in the location just vacated by the electron.

e) If hole-flow could be considered to be “positive charge current flow”, the magnetic polarization around this positive current is consistent with the magnetic polarization produced by the electron current flow.  Thus, when computing or modeling the current flow, it is possible to consider either the positive current flow, or the negative current in calculating the resultant magnetic field since both currents yield the same magnetic effect.  

f) Note: the magnetic field is not augmented by both the positive and negative charge.  The moving electron emits a negative field at its current location, but so does the hole, the area of electron deficiency.  As the electron advances, the area ahead of the Sea is positive, the area of the electron is negative, and the area behind the electron is positive.  This pattern of fluctuation of positive negative positive E Field in relative polarity is the normal experience as a charge passes a point.  Thus, by the hole and electron both moving, there is no added E field, or B field, beyond what would have been created by just considering the movement of the electron.