The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

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Quantum rules govern the behavior of subatomic particles.  The effects associated with various quantum phenomena include: Uncertainty, Tunneling, Entanglement, Charge Quantization, and Energy Quantization.

Charge Quantization: Charges come only in unit charges.  (Quarks are the exception, in that they have a theoretical 1/3 and 2/3 charge.  These particles are never seen experimentally, so they may actually have a 1:3 and 2:3 neg to positive ratio of negative to positive DPs.  Thus, charge quantization as only integer units may still be applicable.)

The Electron mass has only one central negative DP and is surrounded by layers of polarized negative-positive DP pairs, which together sum to form a net -1 charge over the surface integral of any space actually enclosing the negative DP at it center.

The more complex particles, Baryons (3 quark particles, e.g. neutrons and protons) and Mesons (2 quark particles, e.g. pions and kaons) form as collections of positive and negative DPs confined in a small subatomic space.  

Creating the organization of a charged mass (e.g. the proton) requires large amounts of energy (e.g. 938.256 MeV) to overcome the repulsion of like-charges and attraction of unlike-charges from the Dipole Sea. The energy is required to form the dense positive and negative DP population of the proton’s internal structure.  Thus, the proton is composed of compressed DP’s, as are all the other subatomic particles.  In the case of the proton, there is an excess of 1 Positive DP.  In the case of the antiproton there is an excess of 1 Negative DP.  In the case of the neutron, there is an equal number of Negative DPs and Positive DPs.  Some configurations are more stable than others, which brings us to the consideration of Energy Quantization.