The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

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Summary of Basic Concepts
By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

Momentum: A moving charged particle has a velocity and a mass.  Velocity is the rate of displacement of the mass in space per unit of time.  The fundamental unit of velocity is the smallest increment of distance (possibly the Planck distance?) and the smallest increment of time (the Planck Time? – the Moment).  To deeply understand momentum requires a fundamental understanding of space, mass, and time.  Understanding these concepts is the ultimate goal of the Theory of Absolutes.  Thus, our initial discussion of momentum will start with another attempt to define these properties.

o Space: the property of separation of particles.

§ Space appears as a property of the universe because of the transfer of information traveling between Grid Points at the local speed of light.

o Time: the property of sequence.  

§ Waves and particles move through the Matrix and DP Sea via small increments of advancement, where each increment represents a “Moment” of time.  The assembly of the near-infinite sequence of Moments constitutes the flow of time.  

§ Every DP occupies a Matrix Gridpoint at any given Moment, and the movement of particles to new positions after each processing sequence gives substance to the passage of time.  

§ The particles move according to the rules of force.

§ Communication of force, energy, and information occurs at the speed of light.  

§ There are two types of movement:

o The Cooper Pair: interconnected electrons that flow paired together in superconductors.

o The negative DPs that bond together to constitute the electron mass.  

o The “spooky action-at-a distance” movements between a pair of entangled masses.

o The checking of each particle (DP & Matrix) of the conductive local environment before the DPs make their next move each moment.

o Local conditions of the DP Sea, such as field density, determine the actual rate of information propagation.

§ The speed of light limits the rate of information passage through space, and thus allows the universe to manifest aggregation of particles and waves.

o Mass: the assembly of Negative DPs or Positive DPs into small stable, spherical collections of DPs to create the electron mass and the positron mass.

§ The assembly of like-polarity DPs into a space requires an appeal to the principle of entanglement.  In the process of formation of the mass, the DPs of like-polarity establish a relationship allowed by the quantum charge nature of space, and in turn store the energy of mass in the polarization of the DP Sea surrounding the charge.

§ The existence of net charges in turn creates the possibility of charge-based assembly of particles such as atoms.

§ Negative DPs and Positive DPs also possess the property of inherent N/S magnetic polarity, just as they possess the property of +/- electrical charge.  

o Fields: Negative DPs and Positive DPs emit messages that travel at the speed of light, propagating increment by increment through space with the passage of each moment.  

§ Primary fields (Particle Generated Fields – Inherent), electrical and magnetic, are emitted by the DPs and the masses formed by their aggregation.  

o The particles generate a message as to their nature and emit it anew at each moment.

o To generate such a field each moment, forever, requires no energy to power this ongoing emission.  

o Rather, this message generates from an inexhaustible reservoir that has its base in the eternal existence of the consciousness of the particle.

o Each DP emits a sphere of E field and B field.  The force-command generated by the DP is created out of nothing by consciousness.  It creates a new force-command sphere every moment out of its will according to the nature give to it.

o The totality of the force-command influence divides itself up among all the Points carrying the particle at each moment.

o The inverse square law is thus implicitly implemented.

§ The total influence of each moment’s DP force-command sphere remains connected and constant over time.  

§ But, the total influence is divided among all the Points that carry it in the ever-larger, spherical area as the sphere expands radially at the speed of light.

§ Secondary fields (Gridpoint Generated Fields – Reactionary): Electrical and magnetic fields appear in response to the change in magnetic and electric fields in that space.  

o In general, whenever DPs move, the points respond to that change in field by generating an appropriate EM wave that accompanies the inherent/primary field emitted by the DP.

o Energy: the property whose ultimate essence is the assembly of charge and magnetic poles into a non-resting configuration.

§ Energy is a complex concept, dependent upon other more primary phenomena to manifest.

§ All movement has as its base currency a quotient of energy.

§ All organization of the DP Sea away from the complete electrical and magnetic disorder of the quiescent vacuum of the pre-Bang space is likewise reflective of energy of a type.

§ The distinction between kinetic and potential energy lies only in the presence of movement.  Mass is a potential energy simply by its presence, and superimposed upon that energy is the kinetic energy of its movement with respect to a frame of reference (thus a relative kinetic energy), or the absolute frame (in which case it would be a measure of its absolute Kinetic energy).  

§ All speed of light waves are packets of electromagnetic organization in motion, and could be categorized as kinetic energy.  EM waves can impart velocity to other particles.  

§ Charged and neutral subatomic masses are formed from the assembly of smaller charged masses as elaborated by the Standard Model.

§ Energy of motion is stored in the organization of the DP Sea.

§ Potential energy is a concept associated with the force applied by the various types of Fields.

o The movement of charge as it travels through space will stimulate the Grid Points to produce a magnetic signal in response to the changing E field associated with that charge’s movement.

o The change in magnetic field produced by the change in B field associated with the movement of the charge is detected by the points and produces an E field in response.

o This impressed E field is from the inherent generation of field by the charged particle.

o The charged particle likewise progressively withdraws its inherent E field from the volumes it has departed.

o Thus, the volume departed by the charged particle will depolarize due to the withdrawal of the field from that space.  

o Thus, space is being alternately electrically polarized, and depolarized, by the movement of the charge through it.

o The generated B field associated with the advancing charged particle takes energy from the motion of the particle and stores that energy in the space ahead of the moving charged particle.

§ The changing B field produces an associated E field that opposes the forward motion of the particle with its Electric field force.

§ The opposing force that seeks to decelerate the forward advance of the particle counteracts the accelerating force of the collapsing magnetic field on the backside (retreating edge) of the particle.

§ A net motion occurs only because there is a sequence of action applied on the particle that conforms to the arrow of time and the sequence of energy application.

o On the trailing edge of the particle, the B field associated with the retreating particle releases the magnetic energy stored in space around it.  

§ The energy of the collapsing magnetic field is transferred back to the retreating particle as the collapsing magnetic field is converted into an E field.

§ The electric force then propels the charged particle forward.

o The changing B field (dB/dt produced by the Grid Points) associated with the moving particle produces a counteracting E field by the Points.  

o This entire sequence of events is precipitated by the charged particle impressing an E field on the space preceding the particle.  

o Thus, the E field in the space preceding the particle is increasing, which the Points detect, and generate a B field in response to the increasing dE/dt.  

o And, then in response to this increasing B field (dB/dt), the Grid Points generate an E field which opposes the motion of the oncoming charged particle.

§ Note: this sequential reaction appears to extend only to the second derivative.  Thus, the change of the change of the change is not produced by the matrix.  Thus, a tagging of the generation must be associated with the particular field.

o The net effect of this layered reaction is to store magnetic energy in the space ahead of the particle, and apply an E field force opposing the advancement of the particle.

o At the same time, the space behind the particle is discharging its stored magnetic energy, and creating an E field force that is pushing the particle in the direction of movement.

o To produce movement requires the application of energy.  Mass must have a net force applied it to accelerate it as seen in the F= ma equation.  This equation simply reflects the fact that a mass at rest has no forces acting upon it, but as soon as a net force is applied to it, a magnetic force will generate, and an electric force will oppose its further acceleration.  As long as net accelerating force is applied, the mass will continue to accelerate.  A mass does not have the ability to generate a force equal and opposite to a net accelerating force to remain stationary.  It only has the ability to generate a force in reaction to the force once motion is has resulted from the force.  Thus, force on an object in space always produces motion, but the amount of acceleration is limited to the total duration of the application of the force, which is in turn limited by the energy stored in the agent applying the force.  Thus, energy is conserved in collisions where target particles are accelerated and colliding particles decelerate in response to the backward force produced by the particle as it moves in response to the impact.

o The force acting behind the charged particle is the driving element behind the mass’s motion.  The Force generated by the outside force produces motion.  And, that force continues to act on the particle throughout its uninterrupted flight.  The magnetic field as it collapses converts into an E field force that advances the motion of the particle.

o But, the velocity of the particle has an opposite effect in the space ahead of the charged particle where it stores energy as a magnetic field, and then applies a force on the mass to the direction that opposes forward movement.

o Such a scenario brings into question how the particle could move in a configuration where opposite and equal forces act on the particle.  

o But, this situation resolves when we consider the sequence of events which produced the initial acceleration of the particle.  

o First, the charged particle was accelerated by the application of a disproportionate force in one direction by a wave or particle impacting it.

o Thus, the particle was accelerated in the direction of the net Electrical force.

o After the particle acquired its initial velocity, the entire sequence of force generation resulted in the particle’s movement, and the particle will continue in motion because of the sequence of the forces acting on the mass.

§ The finite dimension of the mass may be the key to the disparity in the sequence of motion and reaction by the opposing force.  

§ When the initiating force acted upon the particulate mass, the entire mass did not accelerate at the same time because the particle has a dimension that requires time to communicate that force from the trailing edge to the leading edge, and the space preceding it.

§ Thus, motion implies that the two edges will continue to respond in the same sequence as was precipitated by the initiating collision force.

o Thus, the particle will continue to accelerate as long as a net force is applied to it, and the particle will continue in constant motion, with a constant velocity, as long as the particle encounters no external forces (fields) which would accelerate, decelerate, or change its direction.

o The particle will appear stationary, without any momentum or velocity, and without any magnetic or electric field acting upon it when examined by another particle traveling at the same velocity (i.e. same reference frame).

o The points are the mediators of the generation of E field and B fields that result when there is a change in E field or B field (dE/dt and dB/dt) as a result of charge movement.

o The points generate a field which travels in a particular direction.  This field is generated in response to the approaching and retreating field of a charged particle.

o The Gridpoint-generated fields are directional, ray-like, single-direction, single moment fields.  They are regenerated anew every moment.  They are not the omnidirectional radiations produced by the charged particles.

o The Points generate fields in response to the dB/dt and dE/dt, and those fields only travel for one moment, and then are regenerated by the next set of points.

o The relay of the dB/dt and dE/dt field through space is the method by which Electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, and photons, propagate, and do so at the speed of light.

o Note: in the case of Cherenkov radiation, mass travels at speeds greater than the local speed of light, but that extra energy is dissipated quickly.  The local media cannot return the energy back to the mass, and the particle travels only a short distance before the excess energy is left behind and converted into photons.)  

o We are faced with rationalizing how the particle maintains the field energy of motion around itself and not lose it to space?

o The question restated is, “How can the energy of a subliminal particle be stored in the space around the particle by a medium that travels only at the speed of light?”

o The charged particle generates its E field new, out of nothing, at each moment.  No energy is expended in the generation of the inherent field.  The electric field generated by the charged particle is simply the nature of the particle.  The generation of this field is not the same as generating energy.  Rather, this continual generation of E field is the substance upon which the appearance of energy depends.

o An E field moving in relation to the Grid Points generates a B field.  This is the nature of the Grid Points to respond to a changing E field by generating a B field.  The Grid Points likewise generate an E field in response to a changing B field.

o The inherent charge of the DP is based upon the continual generation of field from that single point of consciousness.  Every DP generates a 360° spherical radiation of field.  And, the net charge radiating from the assembly of DPs that form a subatomic particle of mass, such as an electron, reflects that nature of the DPs.  A changing field ultimately has arisen from the movement of DPs.

o The inherent nature of the Matrix is to respond to field changes by generating a directed field of opposite type.

o Inherent charge, and the Matrix response to changing field, are the properties of force and field upon which all movement depend.  And by corollary, these underlying properties of time, space, field, and force create the conditions which allow the existence of the secondary properties of matter such as energy and momentum.

o The neutron is hypothetically constructed of quarks, and as such has its own charges internal to it.  Thus, those charges, as they move through space with the mass’s velocity, will be subject to the forces and fields described above.

o Mass and velocity are the constituent elements that are required to compose kinetic energy.  

o Mass or charge in a static configuration with repulsive or attractive fields are the constituent elements that compose potential energy.

o Work and power are the obvious conceptual relatives that integrate force applied over distance and time.  

o When framed as various types of Dipole Sea order, we can easily understand why energy conserves.  

§ Energy passes between the compartments of potential and kinetic energy in their various forms.

§ Fields, mass, and velocity combine in various ways to form various states of order.

o The bottom line is that energy in all its different forms corresponds to the organizational state of the DPs.  

o Kinetic Energy is calculated with the equation: E = ½ mv2.  

o Momentum is calculated by the equation: p=mv.

o Both equations correspond to a type of dynamic organization of the Dipole Sea.  In other words, the ordered structure of the Dipole Sea is in a moving packet.  Potential energy can appear in the special case where a stable configuration of equal and opposite forces hold potential energy of fields in a static equilibrium.  Potential energy can also appear in a dynamic system where fields are applied to a mass or charge in motion.  In such a case the fields accelerate the charge and convert the organization of attraction and force fields into the organization of kinetic energy.

o Momentum is an obvious unit of dynamic organizational energy because it is the integration of the acceleration of mass over time, or restated, the integration of the action of force.  

o The conversion of energy between various media is well illustrated in the example of a bullet striking a tree trunk.  

§ The velocity of the bullet is converted into: the thermal motion of the wood molecules/heat, the movement of the tree, the movement of the earth, the heating of the air molecules around the wood, the motion of air molecules as sound, and the IR radiation from the heated wood.

o Each of these energetic components could be considered in terms of the momentum or its energetic magnitude.

o The fields generated by the motion of the charges comprising the mass, and the fields generated by the inherent charges of the particles comprising the mass, are analogous to voltage source in the circuit.

o The movement of the charge in the space is a current.  This current charges the space around the moving particles in the same way as a current flowing through an inductor, namely a B field forms in the space around the moving current and stores energy in that B field.

o The inherent charge of the particles comprising the mass make a field which charges the space around those charges, just like a capacitor, as does the E field generated by the changing B field associated with the movement of the charge/current.

o In the space surrounding the mass, and its constituent charges, there is a tradeoff between energy stored as electrical and magnetic fields.  

§ The storage of electrical field energy, in the form of Dipole Sea charge separation, is the essential nature of a capacitor.  

§ Likewise, the storage of magnetic field energy, in the form of aligned Dipole Sea magnetic poles in the space around a moving charge, is the essential nature of an inductor.

o The electrical energy and the magnetic field energy created by the moving charges of a mass are the energetic storage components that comprise momentum.  

§ The dynamic transfer of energy between these energetic compartments over the space of the mass as it charges and fields interact with the surrounding Dipole Sea is the mechanism by which momentum executes the process of dynamic kinetic energy storage in the space surrounding the mass.

o The rate of charging and discharging of the capacitive and inductive space surrounding the mass is governed by capacitive and inductive properties of the space.   

§ Capacitive property of space: å – electrical permittivity

§ Inductive property of space: ì – magnetic permeability

o The same capacitive and inductive charging and discharge is occurring in the space preceding the mass as in the space trailing the mass.

§ The sequence of action between the leading and trailing edge may have a phase lead or lag.

§ The direction of action of the fields on the leading and trailing edge may likewise lead or lag.

o The collapse of the magnetic field creates an E field which drives the forward motion of the mass.

§ This force is an expression of Lenz’s Law; a physics principle which states that changing magnetic fields attempt to generate a current to maintain the magnitude of the magnetic field.

§ The entry of the electric field into the space preceding the mass creates a change in magnetic field, and that in turn creates a field that opposes the forward motion of the mass.  

§ This dynamic tension between forward and reverse force maintains the velocity of a mass once set in motion.

§ The details of the sequence of the forces which act on mass to create the inertial property of maintaining velocity once in motion will be left to future theorists, mathematicians, and electro-dynamic computer modelers.

§ Suffice it to say, the interplay between charge, E field, B field are complex, and if this theoretical concept is correct, then it will be possible to construct a 3-D, time sequenced, interplay of these forces which is consistent with Maxwell’s equations and Newton’s laws of motion.

o Thus, the moving charge is itself in effect a current.

§ The magnetic field’s buildup and decay (in front of and behind the mass) provide the forces which generate the velocity of the charged particle, and keep its velocity constant.

o The two E field forces generated by the Grid Points in the space preceding the leading and behind the trailing edge of the mass are areas of strong field activity.  

§ In that space collapsing and building B fields create E fields which accelerate and decelerate the mass with exactly equal and opposite force.  

§ Thus, to allow movement, the timing of the two forces must be in a phase-delay of some sort to allow forward motion prior to the application of a force which retards movement.  

§ The initial acceleration of the mass is the generating force which will be the source for the sequencing of the force creating forward motion, and the force resisting forward acceleration.  

§ In general, electrical force produces the acceleration of most mass-force interactions in common life.

o Def: Inertia: The tendency of an object at rest to remain at rest, and of an object in motion to remain in motion.

o Def: Momentum: In Newtonian mechanics the linear momentum p of a body is the product of the mass m and velocity v.  Momentum remains constant in the absence of forces acting on the body.  Momentum is a more fundamental quantity than simply the product of mass and velocity since absorbed photons accelerate a mass.  The lack of rest mass is an irrelevant consideration momentum of the photon is held in the wave y radiation pressure), and yet the photon has zero rest mass.

o Inertia and momentum are near synonyms.  

§ Momentum is the property of mass with a velocity.  

§ Inertia is the property of mass attributed to resisting a change in velocity.  That is, inertia is the property associated with the resistance of mass to acceleration.   Mass resists acceleration and deceleration when already moving, and resists acceleration when stationary.  

§ The collision accelerates the target-particle, and it moves a distance in one moment corresponding to the imbalance in forces acting on the target particle.

o If there is an Absolute Frame, then its presence must be invisible according to Einstein’s postulate that the speed of light is isotropic in every inertial system.  

o 1) The Absolute Frame: For simplicity, we shall consider only a collision between two electrons of different velocities.  In the Absolute Frame, two particles on a collision course will have the E and B fields associated with the absolute velocity of the particles.  The particle with the greater velocity will have a larger dynamic E & B field associated with its velocity.  When the particles collide, the one with the greater velocity will predominate by producing a larger force.  This will cause a larger deflection by the lesser-velocity particle.

o 2) The Laboratory Frame (non-Absolute, but inertial):

§ Two particles on a collision course will have different velocities dependent upon the choice of frame.  

§ The frame chosen could coincide with the velocity of one of the particles.  In that frame only one particle appears to have a velocity.  

§ All inertial reference frames produce the same results in terms of conservation of energy.  

§ In all frames, the particle with the larger apparent velocity (and its correspondent E field acting on the target-particle) will predominate in the collision.

§ All remnants of the Absolute frame are extinguished by the choice of any arbitrary inertial reference frame.

§ The lack of uniqueness of the absolute frame in terms of its signature on the randomly chosen reference frame is an important feature of the universe in that it disguises the presence of the absolute frame.

§ In the absolute frame there are E and B field forces ahead of and behind the particle which carry the momentum.

§ If it were possible to measure the E and B fields generated by the velocity of a particle, it would be the field of the particle as it moved in relationship to the Absolute frame.

§ Thus, even though there was the appearance of a different E and B field around each particle, the artifact added to the particle interaction would be removed when considering only the relative motion between the particles.  

§ In the arbitrary inertial frame, measuring instruments would add or subtract E & B fields relative to the velocity of the mass.

§ The inertial frame is considered “inertial” because it has a constant velocity, meaning it is undergoing no acceleration and having no net forces acting on the frame.

§ It may be possible to locate the Absolute frame, but the current paradigm of science has blinded the scientific establishment, and prevented any meaningful search for effects that might locate its presence.  

§ The Absolute frame is the location from which the structure of the universe mediates the actual mechanics of the particles.  

§ Even though the Absolute frame is the location of actual generation of all the observable phenomenon, the fact of its observation on a platform with a velocity does not alter the appearance of the world when viewed from that non-absolute frame.  

§ Ultimately, colliding particles will transfer energy based on the interactions mediated by, and generated in, the absolute frame.  

· Why did Einstein say that the speed of light is isotropic in every inertial system?

o Does that mean that the speed of light is constant in every reference frame?  

o Is there anything special about how the speed of light travels in the absolute frame?  

o Even though light is only conducted in the Absolute frame, how is it possible that the speed of the observation frame is unable to detect the effect of the Absolute frame on the locus of the light’s path?

o How is it that light displays no preferential properties regardless of the direction?

o The net effect is a dynamic tension of opposing forces which maintains a constant velocity of the particle once the net accelerating force has generated this velocity.

o The velocity of a mass in free space is maintained by the constant collapse of the B field from the space the particle is leaving.  

o During the process of particle acceleration, a net E field repels the charged particle and causes it to move.  This movement causes the space around it to change the inherent particle’s E field present in the space forward of, and behind, the particle.

o The increasing inherent E field generates a B field that stores the velocity energy, and the decreasing inherent E field behind the particle releases the energy stored as a B field.

o The decreasing B field behind the particle generates an E field that advances the forward motion of the particle, and the increasing B field ahead of the particle produces an E field that opposes the advancement of the particle.

o The reason the opposing forces, equal and opposite, do not produce a net standstill, is that the generation of the movement originally sprang from a sequence of imbalanced forces, and the force advancing the particle was impressed first.  

o The fact of the sequence and direction of the accelerating forces obviously produces a net acceleration.  

o After the acceleration has ceased, and the domain of constant velocity has arrived.

o But, the signature of the original acceleration remains, since the particle continues on with its motion.

o If there were a differential in force between the leading and trailing edge, there would be a constant acceleration.  Thus, the ongoing motion cannot be due to a persistent differential in the magnitude of the force applied to the particle.

o Thus, we are left with the conclusion that a differential in timing of the force, between leading and lagging edge, produces the effect of net sustained velocity once imparted.  

o This differential in force would be unnoticed within a particular frame of reference, since all particles in that frame would be experiencing the same sequential lead and lag of force application.

o Thus, in the Absolute frame, the particle has an E field force advancing its movement applied to its trailing edge prior to the application of the opposing force to the leading edge.

o The application of equal and opposing forces on the particle would have the effect of producing a stationary particle.  But, by applying the accelerating force and decelerating force in a sequential manner, the acceleration would be opposed in a phase lag manner, thus allowing for the constant advance in position of the particle.

§ Charged particles maintain a constant velocity in a superconductor because they travel in a resistanceless environment.

§ These flowing charges obtain their velocity by the motive force of a generator or battery which supplies the accelerating force of a field.

§ The B field they generate represents the largest portion of the stored kinetic energy of their acceleration.

§ The capacitive polarizing of the space around the charge represents only the inherent effect of a charge on space.

o The velocity of a charged particle in a superconducting medium is analogous to the velocity of a neutral particle of mass traveling with a velocity in space.  

o Question: “How is the net magnetic field of the superconductor different than that net-zero B field of neutral mass?”  

§ In the case of neutral mass with velocity, the space around it has zero magnetic field because the opposing north and south pole magnetic fields created by the equal number of oppositely charged particles create a net zero B field.

§ In the case of superconductor current flow (charges traveling in a superconducting medium), the B field is non-zero, and proportional to the number and/or velocity of the charges through the medium.

o Question: “How is the magnetic field generated and collapsed each moment in front of and behind a mass related to the net magnetic field of the superconductor?”


o Question: “What is a superconductor?”

§ A superconducting environment is a conducting media cooled sufficiently that it allows the electrons in a current to form
“Cooper Pairs”.  

§ In summary: this pairing of charges and resonance with the conducting media allows the electrons comprising the current to never loses their momentum to the heat dissipating resistance of collisions, and maintain its magnetic field forever.

o Question: “How is a superconductor different than perpetual motion?”

§ This is perpetual motion.  The electrons never stop moving in the superconductor.  As long as the superconductor maintains its superconducting state, the electrons flow through it forever.  

§ Orbital electrons also exhibit perpetual motion, and they do so because there is no lower quantum state to which the energy can dissipate.  

§ The orbital motion of the planets around the sun is near perpetual, but the planets have collisions with space dust, and are thus subject to the entropic dissipation of their orbital energy due to collisions.

§ Mass with a linear or orbital momentum traveling through a perfect vacuum will never come to rest, but the problem is that no perfect vacuums exist in nature.

§ The superconducting system is unique in that there are collisions between the electrons and the conducting matrix, but the energy of the electrons is not lost.

§ The real forbidden physical process is a perpetual motion machine that generates energy.  

§ A superconductor such as is used in a mag lev train, or an MRI, will lose energy if its magnetic field is made to do work.

o The superconductor generates a magnetic field when conducting electrons are accelerated.  

§ Any E field will accelerate electrons and create a current.  Common methods of creating an E field are a battery or generator.

§ The electrons, once accelerated to a velocity have a magnetic field associated with that current.

§ In conventional electromagnetic theory, moving charge (current) axiomatically generates a magnetic field.

§ In the Theory of Absolutes, moving charge generates a magnetic field.  This is a programmed or rule-based response of the Matrix grid points to the change in E field (dE/dt) at a particular point.

§ In the Theory of Absolutes paradigm, moving charge generates a B field because the movement of charge causes the E field in a space to increase (­dE/dt), which causes the Grid Points to generate a reactive B field.

§ Thus, as an electron comes toward a point, the E field will increase at that point, which will cause a B field to generate in that space.  

§ As the electron passes the point, the B field will return toward zero.

o Question: “Is whether the energy of the magnetic field building and collapsing as the electron passes the motive force that maintains the momentum of the electron charges?

§ Force applied to the charge accelerates it.  

§ The moving charge produces a net magnetic field.

§ The amount of energy stored in the magnetic field of a superconductor is equal to the amount of energy lost by the battery.

§ Thus, the energy stored as E field in the battery diminishes, while the electrons build up their store of magnetic energy.

§ Once accelerated, the electrons maintain their velocity, and their B field, since no collisions cause the dissipation of that stored energy.  

o Question: “What is the sequence of B field building and collapse that causes the propulsion of mass at its constant inertial speed?”

§ The E field accelerates the electron.

§ The increase in E field in the space preceding the electron produces a B field.

§ The loss of E field in the space that is left causes the collapse of the B field.

§ The collapse of the B field produces the force that pushes the electron.

§ The buildup of the B field produces the force that opposes the movement of the electron.

§ The sequence of the buildup and decay of the B field around the electron produces the direction of particle flow.

o Question: “How does the m and e of the wire affect current flow?”

§ The E field driving current is supplied by a source such as: a battery, generator, capacitor, collapsing B field of an inductor, or other storage or generating medium.

§ The wire provides a conducting medium that allows them to flow easily through space compared to a non-conducting medium such as a vacuum or insulating material such as rubber.  

§ The reason for the ease of conduction is the availability of electrons in the outer conduction bands of the metallic conductors.  

§ The electrons in the outer shells are loosely bound, and the energy supplied by an applied E field is sufficient to move them from one conducting orbital to the next in a conductor.

§ As long as the energy by the electron is between release and reabsorption, the conductor will conduct current well.  

§ The larger the increment of energy lost in each release and capture transaction, the poorer the conductor (higher resistance).  

§ In the case of the superconductor, the energy lost per orbital transaction is actually zero.

§ The å of the metallic conducting medium will necessarily be lower than free space, simply because of the presence of fields and mass.

o Question, “Given that the B field radiates continuously, to infinity, out from the conductor, how is the conservation of energy maintained?”

§ The current electrons accelerate under the influence of the E field, and a magnetic field generates in response to the E field, and this magnetic field collapses and propels the electron forward.   

§ The B field, once generated, travels forever.

§ But, the escape of the B field from the local area does not diminish the energy available to propel the electron forward at each moment unless it does work on the local space.

o The variation in the rate of the current flow in the antenna produces an E field of sinusoidally varying strength and direction.  This field in turn creates a wave of electron movement which increases the electron velocity and/or current density in a manner corresponding to the direction and magnitude of this generative E field.  

o In the ordinary case of a wire carrying power in a household or transmission line, there is power loss due to the capacitive and inductive coupling of the current to the surrounding media.  But, in the case of the antenna, the amount of energy transmitted to the surrounding space approaches 100%, the remnant being attributable to resistive losses in the antenna wire.

o The difference between the power line and the antenna is one of coupling.  The length of the antenna is tuned so that the electron wave travels to the end the antenna, reflects off the end, and returns to the source to match the phase of the source.  The phase of the current disturbance is traveling at the speed of light in the antenna, and the proper length of the antenna may be calculated according to the wavelength of the carrier wave compared to the speed of light.  Usually a ½ or ¼ wavelength antenna will produce a resonance which will cause the wave to reflect well.