The Heavens Declare His Handiwork

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Antenna Essay

By: Thomas Lee Abshier, ND

Electrons in transit, do not necessarily produce light.  The characteristic light

· A charged particle as it moves has a particular KE EM field.  As it approaches the electron cloud of an atom, the KE EM field of the incoming particle and the field of the electron cloud, sum together.  The sum of the two EM fields produces the net force that drives the charge each moment in the space proximal to the atom.

o The KE EM field produced by the movement of an orbital electron and the incoming electron could sum together to allow the incoming electron to be incorporated into the orbital cloud.  

o In other words, at the position where the incoming electron was in the precise proximity of the orbital cloud to be incorporated as an orbital electron, the KE Field of the orbital electron, and the KE field of the incoming electron may sum to equal the orbital energy quanta required by the atom to be part of that orbital system.

o Having been incorporated into the atomic orbital system, the portion of the KE field above the amount used to maintain itself in this new orbital (the energy differential previously associated with the incoming electron) is now freed to propagate through space.  That energy increment will radiate as an RF photon, a low energy wave packet that emanates from the point of its dissociation from the mass.  Energy is conserved in this splitting of energy into the KE field of the now captured orbital electron and the radiated KE Field remnant.

o This analysis is attempting to derive the origin of the EM fields that clearly radiate from such phenomena as spark gaps, lightning, galactic or stellar RF sources.  

o The above mechanism for forming RF radiation rests on the hypothesis that a portion of the energy of a moving particle is converted into RF energy by the process of capturing it at a moment when the KE fields are summed to a value which corresponded to a velocity where it could be captured and thus separated from a portion of its KE field.  Thus, the additional energy in excess of the energy of the ground state into which the particle was captured (i.e. the Kinetic and Potential Energy of the particle in the system which now holds it) would be radiated as an RF photon.

o The superposition of field energies of two particles passing in opposite directions is only temporary.  The sum of the absolute magnitudes of the energies stored in the two fields is greater than the summation field at that moment.  But, the summation at that moment allows the energy of the incoming particle to match the energy required to insert itself into the orbital system, and thus be captured and dissociate from the increment of KE above the amount needed to be in the orbital system.

o Thus, the captured particle will be associated with the orbital energy, and the differential in energy previously associated with its kinetic energy will continue on in a linear path.  The new orbital electron will veer from that linear path and thus be separated from the increment of energy it carried into the system.  

o

o In the case of the neutral particle with kinetic energy, e.g. the atom, the collinear motion of the positive and negative charge, has a near-net zero Kinetic Energy EM field at distances beyond a few atomic diameters.  As such, the KE-EM fields must be converted into Radiated EM on the atomic dimension, since the macro atomic dimension has little net field which can interact and cancel.  

o The scenario where the EM radiation could occur is the movement of two charges moving in opposite directions.  The unbound electron passing by an atomic orbital system could be absorbed into the atomic orbital of an atom during the time of its influence by the net field of the superimposition of the two opposite directions.

o The key to this process of absorption is the superimposition of KE fields in such a way as to produce a net field that is the equivalent to the KE field needed by the incoming electron to be at an energy level allowed by the atomic orbital system.  Thus, the incoming electron is captured, and in the next moment the KE fields re-emerge from their superposition, but the underlying particles are no longer moving on the same trajectory as the KE field.  The electron-nuclei attraction has moved the incoming particle off of a linear track, into an orbital path, thus separating the electron from its incoming KE field.  As a result, the increment of KE field not used by the new orbital electron is freed from its connection with the moving charge, and forms into a quantum of energy and travels off at the speed of light as an RF photon.

o E fields are generated by the simple existence of charged particles.  E & B fields generate each moment and radiate off at the speed of light from these point sources.  

o Dipole separation, both in the DP Sea and physical dipoles such as the electron cloud-nucleus dipole, is the ultimate repository of all net E fields, which of course correspond to field energy, potential energy, and Kinetic energy.  

o It is the force between separated charges that is the medium of energy storage, and it is this force which ultimately accelerates charges and converts this potential energy associated with the charge separation into charge movement and kinetic energy.

o Thus, the E field in certain configurations can represent stored energy.  And, when charges move under its influence, this stored energy moves from being potential to kinetic energy.  

o The kinetic energy of charge movement, EM energy of fields, potential energy of charge separation are all interchangeable and can convert into heat, mechanical work, momentum, or radiated as Electromagnetic Energy.

§ As an example, all sparks generate an EM pulse.  A spark will form when the potential difference between two points is great enough for the charge to jump the gap.  The field accelerates the charge, which then stores its acquired momentum as an EM field around itself.  This Kinetic Energy field generates continuously as the charge moves.  The KE field radiates away from the charge continuously.  This KE field represents the formation of energy only to the extent that the charge moves in relationship to other charges or in relationship to the Absolute Frame.

§ Note: Every E&B field generated each moment will react with every other particle in the system.  

· Thus, the question is merely whether the reaction will be a large, medium, or small energy transfer.  (In other words, what is the percentage of the total energy contained in the incoming particle is transferred to the target particle?)

· Large energy transfers are obviously recognized as collisions.  This type of interaction transfers a significant percentage of energy from one particle to the other.

· The small energy transfers are usually ignored, and considered to be isolated events, separated from the source.  

o But, every collision, and transfer of energy, regardless of how small produce a reactive E&B field.  This reactive field will travel back to the source and exert a force upon it eventually.  

o The magnitude of the reactive forces may be so small that they are insignificant in engineering calculations.

o During the time the EM field transits between incoming and target particle, the energy in the system was in two different compartments, potential and kinetic.  

o The wave represents a potential for movement of the target particle, thus it could be considered to be potential energy stored in a field.  

o When the field interacts with the particle, the potential field energy of the wave has converted into kinetic energy.

o But, if we look at the larger system, there is no actual distinction between target and incoming particle.  Both particles are simply moving with respect to the Absolute Frame, and generating a KE field.  When they interact, both of their fields influence the other particle at the same time.  The new movement creates a new KE Field in reaction, which will radiate back to the other particle causing it to move in response.  

o This full duplex iterative reactive field influence will continue to the point where the amount of energy absorbed by the nth recursive field is sufficiently small so as to not fit into an acceptable quantum increment of energy.  At which point the interaction between the particles is complete, regardless of the distance.

§ When discussing charge velocity, and charge-collisions, the size of the system must be defined, and the particles included in the system must be identified.

· Every charge in the system will eventually respond, and eventually the result of that response will feed back to the originating particle.  The entire system of particles is affected by the movement of any charge in the system.

· Kinetic Energy/Momentum is dependent upon the movement of charged particles.  The definition of potential energy and kinetic energy is somewhat arbitrary since Kinetic Energy has the potential to create movement, and EM fields are moving, but are simply fields.  Static fields are actually moving with respect to the absolute frame.  

· The delay between field generation and the interaction with another particle is a type of potential energy.  The particle is not increasing or generating new energy as it transits through space and generates a field.  Rather, the momentum/kinetic energy E&B fields represent forces that will eventually produce movement.  The checkbook of energy in the universe is always balanced at every moment.  

· If there were only one other particle in the creation, then the totality of the kinetic energy would be in relationship to that particle.  If there were no other particles in the creation, then the dynamics of the system would be simple, the kinetic energy would be in relationship to the Absolute frame.  But because of the lack of the possibility of energy transfer, the amount of energy would have no meaning in the manifest world.

· The engineering question we must ask is, “what level of sensitivity do we wish to examine this system?”  The amount of interconnection between the particles in the universe is complex and interactive and responsive to forces at magnitudes far below our measurement capabilities.  

· The interaction ceases when the quantum of energy carried by a wave drops below a Planck threshold.  Thus, there is no effect produced below the level of force that disturbs the stability of the system.

§ Thus, the ultimate consideration in the question of energy transfer is how energy transfers in a quantized system.  

· The*** universe clearly limits energy transfers to certain allowable quanta.  

· Thus, at some point the extremely small energy exchanged by the field changes associated with each iteration of mutual interaction will drop below the energy quanta that a charge can carry.

· Energy is quantized into Planck’s constant-sized increments, and the movement of a charge will transfer energy to another only when there is the ability to absorb that increment.  Such could be called the criteria for resonance.

· Thus, the place that the energy is going must be able to absorb it, otherwise it will pass by.  Without absorption, the passage through that space was simply another increment of distance with a refraction (change of speed of light through that space), but without a quantitative transfer of energy to another energy type or compartment.

§ In the case of the electron jumping across a spark gap, as the charge is decelerated by the collision, only a portion of the momentum energy is absorbed as atomic motion and electron orbital activation.  

§ The portion of the momentum not absorbed by the impact site will remain held by space and congeal into Planck-acceptable units of energy.  These quanta of energy will then radiate off in a broad spectrum of EM waves, commonly characterized as “noise”.  

o Another Spark Example: Lightning generates because of the E field associated with the charge difference between the clouds and earth.  

§ The E field accelerates electrons, giving them momentum.   

§ As the spark initiates, the electron travels only a short distance before colliding with an atom of oxygen or nitrogen in the air.  

§ This collision causes the activation of one or more orbital electrons in the air molecules, which will then decay back to ground state via many different increments of orbital energy drop, which results in the release of photons with a wide variety of energies (seen as the white light of a lightning flash).  

§ As the electrons flow, collide, and separate atoms into a soup of ions and electrons, a path of plasma is formed.  The electrons flow with minimal resistance in plasma.  

§ Thus, as the electrons flow in the plasma, the electrons continue their acceleration for longer distances before colliding and losing a portion or all of their energy to the collision.  Thus, when under acceleration by an E field, the electromagnetic field associated with the momentum of an electron continues to build until it collides.  

§ The electron may collide with another electron without losing any energy to light or EM radiation if it collides in a perfectly elastic collision.  Such a collision is in the following configuration: an incoming electron collides dead-on center with a target electron.  The target electron will accelerate at exactly the same rate as the incoming electron decelerates.  Thus, the momentum E&B field of the incoming electron is transferred fully to the momentum E&B field of the target electron.

§ But, such a collision is of low probability, and most collisions are irreversible, losing various amount of energy in the collision to light and heat.  Thus the electrons traveling in the lighting bolt generate these commonly observed phenomena as they participate in irreversible inelastic collisions.

§ The electrons in the lighting bolt do not move at the speed of light.  But, the fields that generate perpendicular to the movement of the electron’s path do propagate outwards at the speed of light.  And, in addition to that speed of light outward vector, those fields also have a forward propagating vector that gives the fields a velocity parallel to the path of the electron.  

· Thus, an electron traveling at a constant rate will have an E&B field that will appear to be emanating straight out from that particle.

§ As long as the charge is being accelerated, the momentum E&B field around the charge increases.  The movement of the charge in reference to the Matrix points causes a change in the E field as the charge approaches each successive Matrix point.  Thus, the Matrix Points generate a B field related to the rate of change of the E field.  This B field, once generated, propagates spherically at the speed of light.  The additive B field vectors of many charges flowing together end up producing a net B field that appears cylindrical.  That B field, radiating outward cylindrically, creates a dB/dt as it travels outward, which induces a reactive E field perpendicular to it.  Thus, the outward radiating conic cylinder of E&B field associated with the momentum of a charged particle.  

§ The E Field and B field complex generated by the moving electron will travel to the end of the creation without being altered.  

· But if it interacts with another charged particle this incoming field will accelerate the target particle.  The motion of the target particle will produce its own E&B field, and the amount generated will be equivalent to the amount lost from the incoming momentum E&B field.  

· Thus, in that space, the motion of the target electron neutralizes the incoming E&B field.  At this point energy has been transferred from the field of the source electron to the target electron.  

· This effect is used to focus radar beams by phasing the current flow of the surrounding radiating elements.    

§ During the process of collision, the moving electron transfers a portion (small portion to complete transfer) of the forward motion component of its momentum E&B field from itself to one or more charged particles.

· The perpendicular E&B field of the incoming electron, the field radiating out perpendicular to its axis of travel (and traveling along with the charge), is transferred to the new charge at the point of impact.  

· The perpendicularly radiating E&B field continues on without a break if the charges collide and transfer their momentum completely.  

· If the momentum is an incomplete transfer, then the perpendicular momentum E&B field that radiates out after the collision will be divided proportionally between the two moving charges.

§ If the forward motion component of the E&B field is not transferred in a way that totally divides that momentum only with mass, (i.e. kinetic energy only before, and kinetic energy after, which is a totally loss-free reaction) this interaction increases the entropy of the universe.  

· Entropy is increased when particles undergo irreversible collisions.  

· An irreversible, entropy producing collision is one where the energy of the system was no longer contained in kinetic energy only.  Rather a portion of the energy associated with the incoming electron transfers to the particle to which it collides, and a remnant organizes into an E&B field that is disconnected to the velocity of the charges.

· Such a collision could occur when an electron collides with a non conducting material.  Such an impact would poorly absorb the electron, vibrate the crystalline matrix of the material, and probably create remnants of E&B field which were not absorbed fully by matrix momentum.  Thus, the remnant E&B fields would not have a mass to associate with, and would as a result produce an RF photon.

· The RF photon is usually a marker of entropy.  An isentropic process (one which is fully reversible) is one which if isolated from its larger context, and run in reverse, is both energetically and entropically realistic.   In other words, a reversible process cannot be identified as being unrealistic by examining its forward and reverse process.   Again, it does not include markers which distinctly identify the direction of the arrow of time because of the entropy-reducing nature of one direction versus the other.

§ The formation of RF (Radio Frequency) photons involves a quantization process similar to that which governs the formation of light photons.  

· RF photons are formed in a process somewhat equivalent to the process of photon formation.  The light photon has a velocity vector component that will be associated with the x,y,z velocity of the atom from which it was radiated, in addition to its speed of light component.  Likewise, the RF photon will reflect the velocity of its source.

· The photon will propagate outward at the speed of light in the medium.  But, it will have a component of velocity perpendicular to light-speed vector that is equal to the perpendicular component of the absolute velocity of the originating atom.  

§ Thus, the incoming electron radiates a radio frequency photon as it collides with the target atom and incompletely transfers its momentum to the target electron.  

· This radio-frequency photon organizes and propagates out radially, and retains the momentum E&B field of the energy lost by the incoming electron.  

· This RF photon is a portion of the kinetic energy stored in the E&B field momentum of the incoming electron”.

· The amount of energy associated with the RF photon plus the energy transferred as mass momentum in the collision is equivalent to the total energy of the electron prior to the collision.

o The release of RF photons from the collision is the market of an irreversible, entropy increasing process.

o There are other processes that increase entropy which do not involve the formation of photons.  One such example would be a rack of pool balls being broken by the cue.  The reverse collection of particles to the pre-break conditions, while not impossible, becomes increasingly unlikely as the number of particles required to produce the more energy-concentrated state.

o Thus, for simplicity, we shall simply use the random, energy divided state, post collision as the direction of increased entropy.  We shall assume that the somewhat possible coalescence of 2 or 3 particles into the ordered state of energy concentrated in a single entity as being merely one of the points on the spectrum of increasing entropy that exist on a conceptual level, but do not prove entropy’s increase in the examination of an isolated vignette.      

· The E&B field associated with the momentum of the incoming electron had a component of energy moving in the axial path velocity-direction of the electron.  

o The remnant of E&B field momentum that was not absorbed by mass after collision likewise had this component.  It is this forward velocity with is the hallmark of kinetic energy.

o Thus, the RF photon separates axially, at the velocity of the electron.  

o And, the sum of the forward energy of the RF photon is equivalent to the E&B field generated during the motion of the electron prior to its collision.

§ And again, if the momentum-field energy held by the incoming charge at the moment of collision is transferred without loss; then there is no EM radiation produced by that collision.

§ The EM field generated by the movement of that charge, during its time of movement, will continue on to infinity regardless of whether or not the charge suffers a collision.  

· The charge with velocity generated EM field will have direction and magnitude in the absolute frame.  

· The fact that it is a field that passes by other charged particles in the universe means that charges will respond to that charge-movement field.  

· When charges are accelerated, they emit a reactive charge-movement field that goes back to the originating moving particle.  

· But, the interaction between every particle in the universe is full duplex.  There is no originating particle, no incoming particle, no source, no target, there are simply two particles moving in relationship to each other.

· When two particles are in a system, and they are both moving, their fields will always be affecting each other, albeit delay because of the distance and speed of light-caused lag in response to the field generated now.

· Thus, given that we live in a sea of fields, we can safely state that all particles are always interacting with each other.

· And, because of the energy absorbing effects that charges can have, it is possible for charge to be field-isolated from each other because of an intervening shield.

§ Thus, the RF photon emitted by a collision between charges has a perpendicular velocity component that gives it its particular electromotive punch.

· Without this additional E&B field, we do not have anything other than an interaction between static charges.  

· The universe took on a whole new dimension of possibility when we added E&B fields with a perpendicular component to their radial propagation at the speed of light.   

· In such a world, the Momentum E&B field generate as a result of the movement of charge, and are the effective carriers of kinetic energy and the force associated with momentum.

o The downward lightning strike current can cause great damage.  The charges themselves are believed to move only a short distance.  But, the leading edge of the arc propagates at approximately 1 km in a few milliseconds.

§ When the charges collide with each other in their transit from the clouds, the B field associated with the moving electrons transfers to the next electron to an extent, which creates a chain reaction of energy propagation.  

§ The energy of the E field is a potential energy.  And the motion of the accelerated electrons is kinetic energy.  The kinetic energy of the electrons that strike other electrons on their path from cloud to earth do so irreversibly, and the energy remnants from the collisions coalesce as RF photons, and are perceived as static.  

§ When the electrons strike the earth, they impart the momentum of high velocity electrons to the ground.  

§ The atoms of earth will be impacted with the momentum of the mass of the electrons, and they will move, be dislodged from their interatomic, and intermolecular binding, if hit hard enough.  

§ And, because the electrons will probably suffer a large number of irreversible collisions, the impact zone of the lighting strike will produce a significant loss of energy to RF photons, and heat (random atomic/molecular motion).

o Likewise, a spark generated by throwing an electric switch can be heard as static on an AM radio.  

§ Electrons jumped the switch gap accelerated by the line voltage across the switch.  The impact on the other side of the gap slowed the electrons down.  

§ The examples of the electric switch or static electricity discharge are low energy examples of the same processes occurring in the lighting strike.  

§ An EM field accelerates the electrons.  The electrons accumulate energy in the form of the E&B fields they form around themselves.  They continue to build energy as they are accelerated in the field.  

§ A field, generated by a moving charge, whether it continues to accelerate or stays constant, still produces an EM field.  And that field causes the movement of charges it encounters in its outward transit.

· A constant flow of current, a DC field, does not produce the oscillation of electrons in a receiving antenna that may be amplified and used to carry a signal.

· On the other hand, an oscillating field, one with varying amplitude, and field strength reversal, will cause the oscillation of charged particles in the antenna.  This alternating flow of current can be detected, amplified, and information superimposed upon it.

· The RF photons produce a momentary burst of E&B energy that produces the static perceived in a lighting storm.  

· The antenna, on the other hand is a controlled increase and decrease of energy placed into the space around the antenna.

· The antenna radiates because it is continually accelerating decelerating, and reversing the flow of electrons.  The electrons are producing RF photons at every point along the path.  The electrons are placed under a continually varying force by the sinewave voltage source.  The adding and subtracting of velocity of electrons, adding and subtracting of E field creates a symphony of interactions that produces the net effect of electrons distributed through the antenna that are accelerating and decelerating at the rate of the sine wave shaped current distribution going up and down, reversing up and down.  

· The key effect in the antenna is the formation of RF photons.  The electrons are stripped of their energy at each moment, and pumped with more energy the next moment.

· The complexity of the interaction of the outgoing current and the incoming current and the driving E field traveling down the E antenna and back is sufficiently complex as to be non-intuitive as to what the elemental interactions that compose this complex addition of fields and forces.

· The bottom line is that the electrons in the antenna have been irreversibly accelerated and decelerated.  The energy that they carry is stripped from them because they are forced to be decelerated into a new energy level by the counter-emf of the electrons or the voltage source.  Thus, they had energy added to them by fields, and then deceleration by fields.  This produced a situation where the energy stored in the electrons was being extracted by force of the opposing E fields.  There was no mass that the energy could attach to, so it was released as an RF photon.

· The other half of this is the formation of the positive, energy adding half of the RF photon production.  The RF photons are created as the current is accelerated.  Every time a current is created there are RF photons made associated with that electron’s acceleration.  The E field, and the energy transferred into it by that acceleration is the constituent energy of the RF photon.   

· Thus, the combination of RF photons being created, imprinted on the electrons in the antenna by the input of energy into the current by the voltage source.  The second step was the release of energy by the deceleration of those electrons and the release of RF photons as power.

· The primary condition which caused the electrons to release their energy into space as radiated power was:

o An external field was decelerating the electron.  The energy that the mass held in momentum was no longer appropriate for its velocity.  That is, the mass had a quantum of energy associated with its velocity, and the decelerating field applied a force to it which caused it to slow down.  Thus, the velocity of the mass and the momentum-field of the mass were mismatched.  The speed of the mass could no longer create the field that had been associated with the mass and its previous velocity.  Thus, the mass breaks with the field, and the field continues off as an RF photon, unassociated with the mass and its momentum E&B field that had created it originally.      

§ The deceleration of the mass by a field, rather than by collision with a mass causes the electrons to radiate some of their momentum E&B field.  

· When the electrons in the spark collide with the target side of the switch, a portion of its current-energy is turned into EM radiation (RF photons), a portion to light photons, a portion into heat as the electrons that vibrate the molecules of the switch, and the remaining portion continues on as current.

· The impact of the electrons can be so intense that it causes pitting in the surface of the switch contact, an effect that arises because the momentum of the electron transferred to the molecules of the metal contact is sufficient to dissociate them from the bonding forces it shares with its matrix.

o Our daily lives are impacted by EM radiation from radio, TV waves, Microwaves, and Radar.

§ High amounts of power, typically 50,000 watts, are used for AM radio stations which modulate the amplitude of high power EM waves to rise and fall in proportion to the voice, music, or data information impressed upon it.

· AM radio uses a carrier wave that is produced by the use of a high power alternating electrical voltage source.  The voltage source drives a current in an antenna properly tuned to the wavelength of the sinusoidal wave.  

o The conversion efficiency from electrical energy to Electromagnetic waves depends on proper tuning of the antenna to the wavelength of the sinusoidal field.

o The wavelength of a radio wave depends upon its frequency of oscillation and is calculated using the formula:

§ c = ln.

· l = wavelength

· n = frequency

· c = speed of light

· The acceleration and deceleration of charges in a wire produces EM radiation in frequencies from DC to microwave.

o The sine wave E field from the voltage source alternately accelerates, decelerates, and reverses the direction of force on the loosely bound electrons in the conduction band of the antenna-wire metal conductor.

o The sine wave variation of the E field is generated by an oscillator and amplified to produce an E field whose strength changes smoothly over time to create a sine wave that alternates in amplitude and direction (polarity) over a full cycle.

o The configuration of a voltage source, with a center fed, ½ wave dipole antenna produces an E field which phases perfectly with the electrons reflected off the antenna end to create a net effective current.

§ The net effective-current is zero at both ends of the dipole.

§ And, the net effective-current oscillates in a sine wave distribution in intensity from maximum negative, to max positive at a sinusoidal rate.

o The electrons in the conductor do not travel at the speed of light.  They have mass, and cannot be accelerated to that velocity.  But, the E field of the voltage source does travel at nearly the speed of light down the antenna, and the question is how this speed of light E field creates a wave of electron velocity that reflects the waveshape of the voltage source V(t), (i.e. voltage as a  function of time).  

§ As we examine the travel of the sine wave shaped E field down a wire, we shall first consider only a half sine wave shape as it travels down an antenna of infinite length.  

§ Given that the voltage source is generating a sine wave, we note that the E field amplitude profile at a particular time, E(x) along the length of the antenna, is continuously variable.  This means that the conducting electrons will be under a unique force, and hence acceleration, at each segment along the conductor.

§ Thus, as the sine wave E field waxes and wanes in its strength over the length of its action. The electrons in the wire will thus be subject to a variety of accelerations as the E field wave passes over any given electron.  And in turn, each electron will acquire a different velocity at that time.  

§ If the E field were to disappear at that moment, and the wire were a super conductor, the electrons supplied with a larger velocity would overtake the electrons traveling at a lesser rate.  

§ But, the reality of the situation is much more complex.  The electrons are traveling in a conductor at an extremely slow drift speed, (e.g. 333cm/hr in a 1 mm diameter copper wire, with a 10 amp current).  Thus, the actual electron displacement is extremely small compared to the 108m/sec speed of light.

§ The movement of the electrons, even though small individually, is responsible for generating the B field around the wire.  

§ The electrons along the longitudinal distance of the half sine wave acquire a differential in velocity due to the sinusoidal variation in strength of the E field along the length of the E field half-wave.

§ This means that the speed of the electrons in the middle of the wave will be greater than the speed of the electrons at the leading edge.  

· The implication of accelerating the electrons in the middle of a wave to a greater velocity than the electrons in front of them is that the electrons in the middle of the wave will overtake the

· But, this effect is sufficiently small so as to produce only a negligible difference between the amplitude signature of the E field compared to the current density at each point along the length of the wire.

· This effect is small as long as the current density is small compared to the frequency of the wave.  

§ This brings into question the fidelity of E field transmission through a metallic medium.  Some of the considerations involved in the induction of an E field are:

· The electrons are bound to their associated atoms, albeit loosely.  The E field supplied by the voltage source causes only a miniscule displacement of each electron at each moment.  And, when the E field passes, the electrons will all settle down to an association with an atom.  

· In other words, each atom has a bond with its conduction zone electrons, but the bond is sufficiently small so as to allow even the smallest Planck increment of E field supplied by a voltage source to move an electron in a superconductor.

· The issue of superconductivity becomes relevant when talking about energy loss in a conductor.

· When an E field is applied to a superconductor, the electrons will continue to accelerate because there is no resistance in a superconductor to dissipate the energy being supplied continuously by a DC voltage source.  

§ In a sine wave, the acceleration lasts only for a moment, and the energy imparted to the electron will be returned to the E field as the half sine wave passes.  

· This effect is similar to that seen where space carries the momentum E&B fields of a mass.  

· In the case of the energy carried by an RF E Field pulse, the E field travels at the speed of light, but the electrons and their capacitive relationship between themselves and their atoms store energy in the tension between them, and in the momentum of the electrons as they accelerate.

· When the sine wave passes, the force used (and energy imparted) to displace the electron is returned to the sine wave E field (the field generated by the voltage source).

· This energy returns because the attraction of the nucleus is continually decelerating, pulling against the movement of the electron away from its center.  

§ The question is ultimately, how each electron behaves in response to the E field supplied transiently by the passing sine wave.  As the E field passes, each electron is forced to move, and as it does so, it moves from the grasp of one metallic nucleus to another.  Thus the electron acts in a manner similar to a ball and spring, only the spring pulls the electron into itself.

§ The electrons under the influence of the passing E field do not travel at the speed of light.  Rather, they accelerate while under the force of the E field for that moment, and accelerate due to its presence.  When the E field changes (as is the case continually in a sine wave), the force and acceleration on that electron changes accordingly.  Such is the case for every electron along every increment of wire along each increment of length of the antenna.

§ Thus, electrons at every increment along the wire are accelerated for a moment in response to that particular portion of the sine wave E field.  But the increment of travel while under a particular acceleration is sufficiently small so as to be insignificant in terms of overtaking the electrons ahead of it. Thus, the wave shape is not distorted noticeably at even microwave frequencies.

· A 10GHz wave microwave, whose full wave period is 10-10 second, would cover a distance of 10cm.

· In a 10amp current, in a 1mm wire, the distance covered by a single electron is estimated to be around 300cm/hr, or 10-15m.  Thus the electron would only move on the order of the diameter of the nucleus in a full wavelength’s time period.

· Such a small electron displacement is insignificant in comparison to the electron orbital, which is 10-10m.  And, in this estimation, the movement distance was based on a full wavelength, when in fact the E field force operated in one direction for only a half wave, and the maximum E field for only a moment.

§ To provide perspective, we compare the displacement of an electron vs. the distance traveled by an E field in a wire in a 1 MHz wave.  

· The E field travels 100meters in 10-6 seconds,

· The electron travels 10-10 meters in 10-6 seconds.

· Thus, even at a low frequency radio wave, the electron would travel only about the diameter of an electron orbital.

· Such a displacement would certainly not cause a pileup of electrons, and wave shape distortion due to electrons traveling at different speeds due to the variations in the amount of acceleration applied by them.

· And there is a second criterion governing the movement of electrons, the allowable quantum displacements.

§ In the case of the superconductor of infinite length, if a half wave pulse were propagated down it, the electrons, once passed, would be given a particular quantum of velocity while under the influence of that E field.  

§ But, the electrons have a force-distance relationship of attraction with the nucleus.  The only difference between a superconductor and an ordinary conductor is that collisions (i.e. between electrons and atoms as the electrons transit between atomic bonds) in the superconductor are without energy loss to the metallic crystal matrix.  

§ Thus, the electrons that move between atomic bonds and are given momentum by the traveling E field for a moment.  But, they return the energy given to them back to the EM wave when they are re-captured by the metallic lattice.  

§ Thus, the electrons are in motion for a moment, and may make an excursion inside the orbital of one atom of the metallic crystal lattice, or may move between atoms because due to the force of the passing E Field.  

§ Regardless of whether the electron stays or leaves the orbital, the electron will have lost its energy after the sine wave passes.  It returns that momentarily-held energy back to the E field.  The electron returns back to its lightly bound state in the conduction zone of the atom.  

o Examining further the relationship between the E field and the electron excursion.

§ If the sine wave E field is rising, the next increment of E field force acting on the electron will accelerate it more.  And, if the E field is falling then the acceleration the next moment will be less than its previous value.  But regardless, the electron will be given more momentum, or at least a greater excursion within its bond to its associated atom.   

§ The forces acting on the electrons by the E field are similar to the way that a gust of wind acts upon a lake.   The wind causes a disturbance on the water that travels as fast as the gust of wind.  But, the water does not travel in bulk as fast as the wind.  

§ Such is the case with the electrons under influence by the E field; they accelerate more or less rapidly as the sine wave, with its variable strength of field, passes by.  

§ Thus, the longitudinally varying E field wave causes the electrons to form regions of higher concentration (creating points where more electrons pass by per second) as the regions in the wave where they are accelerated by the effect of a high E field.  

§ The effect of higher and lower concentrations in a wave is also seen in the configuration of air molecules driven by the compressive effect of a pressure wave, which create sound.  

o The question is, “What is the effect of an E field passing by a charge, when it passes by at the speed of light?

§ In general the metallic conductor is like a dipole matrix that retains its position.  The electron excursions are like the water molecules that are moved forward and back as the wave passes.  The wave moves many particles it passes by, but the particles return to their original state after the wave passes.  

§ It is this automatic restoration by the local conductive media that causes the oscillation to exhibit its wave effect.  

§ The movement of DP electrons and positrons in the Dipole Sea move under the influence of a passing E field wave, move in a manner similar to the motion of the molecules of water in the wave.  

§ The DP electrons and positrons in the Dipole Sea move forward and backward in response to the pressures of the E field.  Likewise, they integrate together the motion of two or more fields passing at orthogonal or parallel angles.  The underlying field is unchanged by a non turbulent amplitude, and as a waves simply pass through each other unchanged by their superposition.  Thus, the E field, as a conscious command, having an effect on the DP Sea, but not dependent upon it solely for its existence, is able to carry waves that superimpose, and become totally unrecognizable from their original shape, but return to their original shape after passing through the region of superposition.

o But, the question remains, “Where is the point or process in the wave as it travels through the antenna where the E field transfers energy to the surrounding space, and away from the E field as it is concentrated in the antenna wire?”

§ Conservation of energy demands that the energy produced by the voltage source every second must equal the energy carried in the antenna per second, which in turn must equal the energy carried through the space around the antenna per second.  

· The energy of one compartment must be transferred to the next at the same rate in the steady state condition.  

· Restated: the energy transfer through each compartment must be equal over time.  

· The implication of a continued accumulation of energy in one compartment is damage and/or distortion of that compartment.

§ Thus, we must understand the nature of the energy, the form in which energy is carried in each compartment so as to be able to identify clearly the energy as it passes from compartment to compartment.  

§ The voltage source generates energy by doing work in some way to separate positive and negative charges.  Having separated charges, the energy of the charge separation is held in the field between the charges as a potential energy, a field capable of creating movement of electrons, a current, which is a kinetic energy.  

§ The transmitter voltage source is thus creating a condition at the two poles at the end of its transmission line, which are charged oppositely.  Thus an E field is generated between the two poles.

§ The two end of the transmission line function as a capacitor, storing charges between the tips of the wire.  

· The amount of charge that can be stored between two tips of a wire is small, so the capacitance is small.  Thus, very little energy is stored in the transmission line.

· In fact, if the voltage is raised to a high level at the voltage source, a large current will be generated in the transmission line, which will then be reflected off the end of the transmission line.  The current generated corresponds to the kinetic energy of electrons moving, and when the reflected energy comes back to the voltage source that energy will attempt to flow in the circuitry of the transmitter.  Such an experiment results in a smoking transmitter as that energy is dissipated as heat inside the transmitter.  

· Thus, the challenge to have the energy generated by the voltage source transferred to the antenna, and that energy transmitted to space.  

§ The transmitter voltage source radiates out an E field between its two poles.  That radiation is spherical from both poles, but the Fields of the two poles, being oppositely charged, superimpose, and largely cancel each other out in the volume of space on either side of the poles.  

· Thus, the E field in the space between the two poles is large, and the space outside of the poles is small.  

· By placing a wire at the end of the transmission line (creating an antenna), the E field between the two poles is given the opportunity to influence the electrons in the antenna wire.

· The negative pole repels electrons, and the positive pole attracts electrons toward it.

§ This E field generated between the tips of the wires at the end of the transmission line will generate a current in a wire attached to the transmission line.

· The E field disturbance travels at the speed of light down the antenna wire, causing the movement of electrons corresponding to the polarity of the terminal.  

· And while each electron travels only a small distance during the time of passage of the E field wave, their individual movement produces an additive effect that creates the formation of a B field, a magnetic field, around the wire that corresponds to the current flowing in each increment of distance along the wire.

· The antenna has a length (which should correspond appropriately to the wavelength of the frequency being generated if there is to be maximum energy transmission).

o Thus, given the lightspeed of the E field generated by the transmitter voltage source, and the finite length of the antenna, there is a time delay between the initiation of the current flow from the feed end of the transmission line, to the time when the E field bounces off the end of the antenna.  

o The current, and E field associated with that electron velocity, having reversed direction, now returns to the transmission line.

· This time of transit allows for a period during which electrons flow in the antenna and the formation of a B field around the antenna wire.

o And since the B field is changing with time, an E field is formed orthogonal to the B field.

o This E&B field transmits into space at the speed of light away from the antenna.  

· Let us consider further the conduction of the E field in the dipole medium of the antenna wire.  

o The antenna is a dipolar conduction medium because the positively charged nucleus of the metallic elements, and the negatively charged electrons in their conduction bands can move apart in small increments of energy.  

o The separation in energy between the allowed quantum states in for the conduction band electrons of a metallic conductor is small.

o This small increment of energy between allowed states gives the metallic conductor the ability to allow the conduction band electrons to carry small increments of kinetic energy as electron movement.

o Together, the entirety of the complement of electrons enrolled as current carry the total energy corresponding to the energy input by the transmitter voltage source.

o The energy carried by the current automatically forms an E&B field in the space around the antenna.  And that E&B field, as long as the current is flowing, is intimately associated with the momentum of the electrons in the current.  But, when if the current stops flowing in such a way as to produce no further modification of the net current in the antenna, a net transfer of energy has taken place.  If the source voltage potential difference is neutralized by the return current flow, then the potential energy of the source has been depleted.

· And, this is the situation in a tuned antenna.  The potential energy associated with the transmitter voltage source is converted into the kinetic energy of the antenna current.  

o The kinetic energy of the current is held by the EM fields in the space around the antenna, and that field is continuing to radiate outward at the speed of light the entire time the antenna is conducting current.

o The reflected electrons reverse the momentum, and reverse the direction of the E field driving the current.

o The reflected electrons, in the properly tuned antenna, will arrive back at the transmitter feed line at exactly the right time to neutralize the potential difference being created by the voltage source at that moment.  Thus, the energy of the voltage source is released because the field potential called for the conduction of “x” electrons to neutralize the field.  As a result of that number returning to the source at the proper time, the E field across the voltage source is neutralized, and thus, the potential energy of the field has been converted into “field energy” after having gone through the intermediate step of being “kinetic energy” in the form of current.

§ This process of antenna energy-radiation begins with creation of charge separation.  The voltage (charge separation) is generated at a certain rate to create an alternating current, which corresponds to the proper ½ wavelength antenna length, which is fed to out to the dipole antenna by a transmission line which is a coupled pair of wires that does not radiate.  At the end of the transmission line the alternating voltage source connects with a metallic wire antenna.

· At the end of the transmission line, where it connects with the antenna, is a sinusoidally varying potential difference between the two poles of the voltage source.

· The field generated by this potential difference, this E field, this point where charges are separated, is omni directional.  Thus, there is no preference by the field for the creation of current flow in any particular direction by the E field between the terminals.

· Thus the field that causes electrons to flow in the metallic antenna wire is the same field that flows everywhere into space as it emanates from the terminals of the antenna feed.  

· But, the metallic antenna wire is responsive to the polarization of the E field, and the electron-nucleus dipole responds, and moves accordingly.  

· The E field of the voltage source propagates out at the speed of light through the transmission line and antenna.  

· But as soon as the antenna wire experiences the E field, it separates the electrons and their nuclei.  The polarization of the electron-nuclei in the antenna creates a reverse direction E field that opposes the polarization of the space by the “voltage source wave”.  The result is to focus the energy of the voltage source inside the wire.  Thus energy is transferred from the potential energy of E field to the kinetic energy of a moving electron current that carries momentum.

· The metallic conducting wire is full of mobile electrons and nuclei.  The E field produces polarization of these potential dipoles, and it is this reactive polarization that “zeroes out” the E field created by the voltage source in the space behind the leading edge of the E field.  But, the forward movement of the electron causes the E field to continue to propagate down the wire.  Thus, as soon as current begins flowing in the antenna wire, the voltage source E field effectively concentrates only in the antenna wire.

· Thus, the antenna wire acts like a continuous capacitive medium where every increment of its length generates a reactive field that opposes the polarization of space behind the leading edge of the E field from the transmitter voltage source.

· As a result, at every point in the transmission of the E field down the wire, the E field of the transmitter voltage source propagates in the direction of the polarizable metallic medium rather than spherically radiating its potential energy into space as it would in a static, capacitor, separated charge type configuration.

· Thus, the E field of the voltage source concentrates its energy within the volume of the conductor in two different media, 1) the polarization of electron-nucleus dipoles, and 2) the E&B field polarization of space corresponding to the kinetic energy of the charged particles that have moved due to the voltage source E field.  

· The net flow of energy is as follows: 1) the transfer of kinetic energy in the generator to 2) the potential energy of the voltage source which is simply a separation of charge and the storage of energy in the field between the charges, and 3) the conversion of that field energy into the kinetic energy of moving electrons.  

· The electrons bounce off the end of the antenna because their momentum is reflected by the larger mass of the antenna.  Thus, the antenna has two current flows, one forward toward the antenna end, and one backward returning from the antenna end.  

· At this point, to justify the transmission of current in one direction or the other becomes difficult, because in effect there is only one summation field, and if this were the field driving current flow, it would be impossible to have current flow in two different directions simultaneously.  But, this phenomenon is established fact, just as water wave experiments justify that waves going in opposite directions can in fact superimpose and pass through each other.  Thus, the explanation for this phenomenon remains that each wave, once generated, propagates its own E field from that moment to infinity.  Thus, all EM phenomena show up as points of concentration of effect, as nodes of constructive and destructive interference.  Thus, the E field of the forward and backward propagating fields does have a net effect in terms of current flow in each segment of antenna wire, and this does create the net field of the antenna that creates the radiated E&B field.  But, underneath this summation effect, the forward propagating E field, and the reflected wave are still existent as fields that are continuing to propagate and create the net superimposition.  Thus, the returning current, when it arrives back at the transmission line feed point will be in exactly the right phase to neutralize the charge on the voltage source at that moment.  

· At the end of the antenna, each electron arrives back at the transmission feed line at the appropriate phase to complete the movement across the voltage source potential.  This completion of the circuit in this alternating current context is the equivalent of the static condition where the charges in a capacitor are discharged through a conductor that allows the separated charges to reunite.

§ This concept of charges reuniting at the voltage source is a restatement of Kirchoff’s Law, “The sum of the voltage drops around a circuit is equal to the voltage of the source.”

· The antenna is an odd example of a circuit because there is only one wire, and no obvious return path.  Thus, the voltage source does not appear to allow the electrons to make a return trip to the voltage source.  

· Thus, the antenna, as a circuit, or circuit element, has a more complex response to the flow of current than the more familiar circuit elements such as a capacitor, resistor, inductor, or semiconductor.  

· In the case of the antenna, the circuit is a trip by electrons from the voltage source to the end of the antenna where they are reflected, and then return back to their source.  

· The voltage at the source has an opposite polarity at the time of the return of electrons because the antenna is ¼ wavelength long, which means that the entire trip to the end of the electrons to the end and back is ½ wavelength.  During a ½ wavelength travel, the polarity of a sine wave will reverse 180°.  Thus, the alternating current voltage source will have a polarity exactly opposite to the charge it had when that increment of current was generated.  

· The effect is to create a circuit with only one wire by conducting the electrons back to the source.  The voltage source sends out an E field that creates a current, which travels to the end of the antenna where it bounces and returns to the voltage source.  

· The energy of the current is transferred to the polarization of space by its “kinetic energy fields”.  The electrons returning to the source are absorbed by the voltage source, effectively neutralizing the charge separation created by the voltage source.

§ Circuits require a voltage source to create an E field, and examples of a voltage source include a battery, a charged capacitor, or a generator.  

· When a battery is hooked up to a wire, current will begin to flow in the wire.  But, if the wire is not connected to a circuit, (or not configured as an antenna as described above with an alternating current), then the current will move down the wire, bounce, and return to the source.

· This momentary current flow is called a transient, and the distribution of energy from this short current burst is complex.  Some of the energy will be stored as capacitive displacement between the electrons and their nuclei in this short segment of wire.  The E field from the battery connected to this open circuit is just as real in the wire as it is in the battery itself, or in a closed circuit where current flows.  

· When these transient electrons reflect and return to the battery or capacitor, they return to a voltage source which has been depleted by their exit.  Thus the voltage source has “charge vacancies” and reabsorbs their kinetic energy as chemical bonds in the case of the battery, and as increased E field in the case of the capacitor.

· Given the likelihood of collisions in this process of reabsorption, there will probably be electrons which return to the source and bounce back out into the wire again.  This process of reflection may continue many times until the energy is dissipated as heat or reabsorbed fully by the battery source.

· But during the time where the transient current oscillation persists, the E field generated by the voltage source is propagating a wave of current that is generating its own transient wave of energy storage and dissipation in each of the circuit elements.  

§ The question here is, “What happens to the energy that is put into the space around oscillating circuits?”  

· Whenever a circuit has an oscillating current that flows within it, due to such phenomena as the reflecting of current in an open circuit, the question is, “Was there energy transferred as radiation due to this transient?”  

· The answer is yes.  The process of accelerating charge due to an E field being applied to a wire, will at the very least create a momentary current surge which will then reflect back to the source.  The question is, a conservation of energy question, “Is the energy transferred into the space surrounding the open wire a final radiation of energy that is lost to space forever?”

· Again, the answer is yes.  The “outward trip” accelerated electrons, created a current, created an induced B&E field, and this energy escaped into space.

· The return trip creates an opposing E field and an opposing current, which neutralizes (to an imperfect extent) the net current flowing in the wire, and hence the net energy radiating out of the wire.

§ The question is thus, “What is the amount of energy transferred to space during the outward trip?”

· The electrons are moving, so there is an inductive energy being stored in the space around the wire.  But, as the inductor’s current drops, the inductor discharges its energy and forces the current to continue flowing.

· This will of course only last a short time.

§ The capacitive back voltage associated with polarizing the electron-nuclei dipoles will oppose the E field of the voltage source, and the net E field accelerating the electrons from the voltage source will continue to drop.

· The more detailed question is the actual E field and current profile along the wire’s length as it responds to the back-EMF of the wire’s capacitance and the wire’s inductance.  Such questions are best computed by numerical analysis using supercomputers.    

§ The major question remaining is how the energy of the voltage source is converted into radiated energy?

· The point is important because it causes us to question when a field is in the compartment of momentum/kinetic energy and when it has transferred that energy into being potential energy.

· The conventional perspective on energy conservation is that energy cannot be both kinetic and potential in a way that adds to the total amount of energy in the universe at each moment.

· It is this very consideration that brings into question the theory of whether momentum is in fact a phenomenon mediated by the fields created during the motion of charged particles.

· But, we see that the generation of E&B fields by the movement of charges is a process where moving electrons are creating a potential field that will have a delayed effect on another charge, and the movement of that charge will in turn radiate back and influence the movement of the charge that has created that potential field.

· There is a delay between the time that the E&B field is  1) created by the movement of a charge, and 2) the time when that field causes another charge to move, and 3) that movement reflects back from the second charge.    

· Such a delay could be seen as creating additional energy, 1) the kinetic energy that is stored as a field energy, and 2) at the same time creating a potential energy that can move a distant charge.

· But, such a conception is incorrect because it assumes that the distant charge has no action on the moving charge until its field causes movement by the distant charge.  Instead, the actual situation is that the distant charge and the moving charge are both interlocked and interacting with each other’s field at every moment.  The acceleration and subsequent movement of either charge will necessarily react to the field of the other.  The force that adds kinetic energy to a charge must automatically push against the net local fields of all other charges in the universe as that charge accelerates.  Thus, an aspect of the kinetic energy of a moving charge is the energy associated with pushing against the forces from all the other charges in the universe.

· The energy of the transmitted RF wave will be absorbed by other charges and turned into kinetic energy, or it will radiate to eternity, contributing as it goes to the ever more faint vibration of the DPs as it passes their space.

· But, given the Planck limit of energy quantification, at some point the amount of energy that a wave transmits may drop below that threshold and become undetectable.

· Thus, the electron in the antenna is given kinetic energy by the transmitter voltage source.  Part of the energy given to the charge is used in creating the polarization of the DPs in the local space.  And, part of the energy is used to accelerate the charge against the fields from other charges, local and distant.  

· The field radiating from the antenna corresponds to energy created by potential difference between separated charges.  The acceleration of electrons from the anode to the cathode in the final stage of the transmitter amplifier creates a current which flows in the antenna wire.  The wave of current that flows has its own momentum that will be retained with the electrons themselves as long as that current continues to flow in one direction (e.g. an electron beam, or a current in an infinitely long superconductor).  But, if the electron beam collides directly and elastically with an object of essentially infinite mass, the energy of that beam will transfer its momentum to the second object, but the velocity of the second object will be infinitely slow.  In such a scenario, the electron beam will be reflected 180° and 100% of its energy will then move in the opposite direction to the motion of the infinite mass.  As a neutral mass, the kinetic energy field of the infinite mass will be largely contained within itself.  The reflection of the electron beam will create an opposing current, to the incoming current, which means that there will be an addition of fields associated with the beam, and a net effective current appears to be flowing at each point along the beam-track.  When the electron beam returns to its source, it is absorbed by the cathode, and neutralizes the charge difference between the anode and cathode.  Thus, the energy radiated by the antenna is seen as the energy of the acceleration of electrons across a voltage.  There is a net RMS power given to the electrons because there is a sinusoidal variation in the amount of current accelerated.  In effect the current made a trip between the anode and cathode, (via the antenna wire), and in so doing the potential energy of the charge difference was then transformed into kinetic energy.  But, kinetic energy is actually held as a field around a moving charge.  Throughout the time of transit of the electrons through the antenna, this kinetic energy field is radiating from the moving charge, and when it finally collides with the cathode, it is absorbed without any transfer of momentum.  

· The antenna is essentially a trick, a method of ideally converting all of the potential energy of the E Field charge difference into radiated EM field energy.  This trick is accomplished by phasing the voltage source in such a way that the electron is absorbed at the cathode side at exactly the proper potential difference so that there is no reflection.  The amount of force applied by the sine wave is of exactly opposite polarity to the amount that had initially accelerated the electron out.  Thus, it will be accelerated in the opposite direction, down the other leg of the antenna.  Thus, the electron becomes an infinitely volleyed ping pong ball, going back and forth down opposite ends of the antenna.  

· The result is that the antenna continues to radiate the kinetic energy field of the electrons that it accelerates.  The electrons were never decelerated; they were only accelerated from one end to the other, reflected, and then accelerated in the opposite end each time they reached the centerpoint of the antenna dipole.

· There was no dissipation of energy inside the antenna other than the conductor/wire resistance.  The anode/cathode pair simply continued to accelerate the electron back and forth, and as a result the electron continued to radiate out the same power as long as accelerating force was applied to it from the in-phase voltage source.

· Thus, the consideration of energy being conserved is not an issue. The electron is accelerated by an E field, and the motion of that electron is converted into the kinetic energy EM field, which is a transfer and conservation of energy.  The electrons bouncing off the end of the antenna is merely part of the trick that allows the transmitter to process the same electrons, and have them be re-accelerated cycle after cycle.  The same effect could be achieved by alternately accelerating a beam of electrons in opposite directions, but such a configuration for an antenna has problems with practicality.

· The process of an antenna continuing to produce an E&B field of alternating polarity is one type of field that has converted the kinetic energy of electron current into radiated energy in a steady state manner.

· An E field-generated electron current does not radiate more energy if it travels down an infinitely long antenna, nor does a pulse of electrons radiate more energy at it travels farther from its source.  Rather, just as every electron radiates out an E field each moment, generated anew by the inherent generative capacity of the E field, so too likewise, the E&B fields produced by the electron in motion, once accelerated, continues to generate the force that moves the particle forward, while producing an outward generation E&B field propagating radially at the speed of light.

· When examining circuits operating at steady state, the voltage and current profile throughout the circuit elements does not change.  The voltage drop is constant across each element does not change with time, and the B fields around each wire and circuit element is constant.

· In a circuit carrying an alternating current, the voltage profile is more complicated because the energy may be traded back and forth between the circuit elements at a rate different than the rate of the frequency of the voltage source.  Resistors, capacitors, and inductors in various configurations have their own resonant frequency at which they build up and discharge energy.

· When current starts to flow in a conductor in a simple resistive circuit, the initial transient current flows through the wire is at a higher rate than the steady state current.  The reason for the transient high current flow is that the wire leading to the resistor has little resistance, thus, current flows according to the resistance of the wire.  

· When current reaches the resistor, it collides with the atoms of the resistor.   

· In a completed circuit, wires connect the elements of the circuit to allow current flow back to the voltage source.  Every element in a resistive circuit, including the wires, causes the dissipation of energy, which corresponds to a voltage drop.  The current that flows in a resistive circuit is dictated by the voltage drop produced by the resistor.  This relationship is governed by the equation: V=IR  

· The resistor dissipates energy as heat when electrons collide with the orbitals of the atoms comprising the resistor.  The E field from the voltage source accelerates the electrons, and gives them kinetic energy, which allows them to collide with orbital electrons and raise them to a higher level, and when the orbitals decay, they release energy as infrared photons.  

· Or, the colliding electrons could cause atomic vibration, which is the equivalent of converting the linear motion of the electrons into the disorganized energy of higher temperature.

· An electrical circuit always completely discharges the potential energy of the E field of the voltage source driving the electron flow.  This is guaranteed, because the electrons keep accelerating until they are slowed down by a force that opposes their motion.  In the case of a resistor, the collision with atomic orbitals, the collisions absorb large increments of energy, and then reemit that energy as photons.  And, in effect the energy drop across the resistor is a voltage drop that corresponds to a portion of the total energy drop associated the amount of energy the current loses from the time it leaves the voltage source till it returns to the opposite pole.

· In effect, the electrons have started at a high potential energy, and then have gained velocity, which is dissipated through in steps as they go through the series of resistances to reach the opposite pole of the voltage source where they no longer have any energy.

· In the case of the antenna, the potential energy associated with charge separation and fields, is converted into the kinetic energy of the antenna current electrons and the corresponding E&B fields associated with this moving charge.  The formation of the kinetic energy field from being a potential field is a transfer of energy from one compartment to the next.  The kinetic energy of a moving charge has the property of producing a potential energy field that can be interacted with, and when it does interact with another charge and cause it to move, then the kinetic energy field is diminished, and energy transfers to the other particle.  

· The transmitter would burn up if the reflected wave came back and flowed in the circuitry of the transmitter in an “out of phase” manner, which is called a high SWR (Standing Wave Ratio).  The properly tuned transmitter takes the electrons which reflect back to it and accelerate them to the other half of the dipole, giving them the energy to continue moving to the other side of the antenna.  The returning electrons are taken back into the circuitry of the transmitter, and accelerated into the second half of the dipole.     

§ In the antenna, the individual electrons are accelerated at a different rate at each moment by the E field of the transmitter voltage source.  There are two different E fields flowing in opposite directions in the antenna, but there is only one summation current that flows.  It is this summation current that produces the field that is radiated out and detected as Radio Waves.  

· The current at both ends of the dipole is always zero because current cannot flow out of the end of a wire.

· The voltage at the end of the dipole from the voltage source can be positive or negative, and at a max, medium, or zero amplitude depending on the particular phase of cycle.

· But, when the electrons bounce off the end of the antenna, the E field they create because of that reflection creates a second field, a reversed E field associated with the reflected current.  

· The E field generated by the voltage source continues on for infinity.  But, it is neutralized by the E field created by the irreversible collision of the electrons with the end of the antenna.  Thus, the original E field is zeroed out and will never have any effect on anything.

§ The summation of the two E field waves (going in opposite directions) correspond to the net current movement in antenna, and it is that current that creates the E and B field that generates the net effective RF wave.

§ The energy into the dipole from the voltage source at the center attracts electrons from one side of the antenna with a positive signal, and in the other half of the dipole, the voltage source repels electrons with a negative signal.  In a sinusoidal wave this polarity lasts for one half of the cycle, and reverses that flow in the second half of the cycle.  

§ The result is a half sine wave current distribution over the length of the two ¼ wavelength arms of the dipole.  The dipole antenna has thus synthesized a voltage and current profile along the entire length of the antenna that appears to have a half wave sinusoidally varying current flowing in it.  The current and voltage at the center of the dipole appear to rise and fall from maximum positive to maximum negative, while the ends of the antenna stay at zero voltage and current throughout the cycle.

§ Of course, if a person were to touch the end of the antenna, he would be shocked badly because his body would then become the end of the antenna, and all the E field that was driving current down the wire would then flow into his body.  So, the zero voltage and current is dependent upon full isolation/insulation of the wire from any easy current flow past the end of the antenna.  It is this insulation from the flow of electrons that produces the reflected current, and the summation effect that results in the net effective half wave current flowing throughout the length of the antennta.

o The question is, what are the underlying phenomena creating this phenomenon?

§ A voltage is applied to the center of the dipole which causes the electrons to move.  

§ The voltage fed from the center causes the electrons to alternately flow toward one end and then to the other.

§ The voltage from the center feed of the dipole varies sinusoidally from minimum to maximum, reversing each half cycle, and producing an E field of opposite polarity on the right and left side of the dipole.  

§ The electrons in the antenna accelerate according to the force applied to them by the E field that is upon them at each moment.  Since the electrons do not travel at the speed of light (as does the E field), the electrons will move only a short distance while under the influence of each segment of the E field in the sine wave.  

§ At the end of the dipole the E field that was generated by the transmitter voltage source can be at any value between maximum positive or negative.  

§ The E field generated by the voltage source propagates down the wire because of the actual polarization and movement of the electron-nuclei dipoles in the wire.  Once the field begins to propagate down the wire, all the other fields that could have propagated through space are cancelled out by the fields induces by the movement of the electrons in the wire.

§ The E field continues to propagate past the end of the antenna, but it is zeroed out by the field created by the electrons as they reflect and move in the opposite direction back toward the dipole center.

§ The electrons, now moving in the opposite direction, induce an E field that propagates at the speed of light toward the dipole center.

§ Because there are two currents going in exactly opposite directions at the end of the antenna, the current in the wire will be zero at the antenna.  The reflected E field will add to the current of the outgoing E field, create a net current, and produce the net E&B field that will radiate out from the antenna as a radio frequency EM wave.

· The electrons in the antenna wire are accelerated outward toward the end of the antenna throughout the negative cycle of the sine wave, and inward during the positive cycle.

o The acceleration is greatest when the amplitude of the voltage is greatest, but the electrons accelerate in the same direction during the entire half cycle of a single polarity.  Thus, as the acceleration of the electron increases until the voltage of the sine wave reaches its zenith, at which point the acceleration drops continually until it reaches zero.  At that point the voltage reverses, the force on the electron reverses, and the cycle continues in the opposite direction.

§ Thus, the velocity increases during the entire cycle, but the rate of velocity increase starts small, reaches a maximum and returns to a small value.  Still the electrons are accelerating during the entire 180° half cycle, and then accelerating in the opposite direction during the second 180° of the cycle.

o Thus, negative voltage, the repulsive E field accelerates electrons away from the dipole center regardless of whether the voltage provides a high or low force.

§ After reversal, the voltage source generates an opposite polarity field that propagates down the wire at the speed of light.  

· Given the sinusoidal variation of the voltage source, and the speed of light propagation of the wave, each segment of wire throughout the antenna is under the influence of a different E field force.

o The E field corresponding to the voltage of the source is traveling at approximately the speed of light through the wire.  But, the electrons in the wire have not been accelerated to the speed of light.  They are subject to an E field that was pushing them for a moment as that E field was present at that segment of the antenna.  

· Thus, the electrons each have a particular velocity at each point along the antenna.

o At the end of the ideal ½ wavelength antenna (¼ wave on each side), the electrons reflect backwards, and travel back toward the source.  

o The net overall effect of the current reflecting off of the dipole antenna end, and the current going outward and inward at the same time is to creat a net current that flows to the right for a full half cycle of the sine wave, and then left for the second half of the sine wave.  

o The E field accelerates the electrons in the antenna wire by their force, and this movement of charge causes the development of an E and B field.  This EM field continues to radiate from the electron once it has a velocity.  If that electron were to suddenly be absorbed, then the energy associated with the kinetic energy EM field of the moving would be released into space.   This is exactly what has happened inside the antenna.  A superimposition of current by a properly tuned antenna creating a reflection that causes net current to be created, not by a real electron, but by a summation electron that doesn’t have physical reality.  As a result it is possible to simply extinguish the existence of this “synthetic electron” or “superposition election” and in so doing release the energy of current that is being driven in a very real sense from the transmitter voltage source.

· Thus, we have an answer to our question is, “Does energy transfer to space, disconnected from the kinetic energy of the electrons in the dipole antenna?”  

o The answer is yes because the E field supplied to the charges going out produces a sinusoidal wave of real current.  But, the current that flows out of the ends of the transmitter feed line does not equal the current that flows in the antenna.  

o The antenna line puts out a current that is proportional to the voltage and impedance of the antenna, as per the equation V=IR.  But because the voltage in the antenna is a combination of both the outgoing wave and the voltage produced by the reflected wave, the current that actually flows in the antenna wire is a sum of, and produced by the two fields.

o The net current is perfectly phased to produce a half wave sinusoidal current profile that oscillates from max positive to max negative in a profile that resembles the primary harmonic of a taut string plucked and vibrating up and down.  

o The net effect is a current at every point in the antenna which is changing at every moment.  In effect, the electron conducting current at each moment in the antenna wire exists only for a moment, and then disappears.  It is this lack of connection of the momentum E&B field from the charge/mass that allows the electrons in the dipole antenna to radiate their E&B field energy.  

o Thus, the properly tuned antenna radiates energy into the space, rather than simply carrying high velocity electrons from the source, and then back to the source.  Such a system would cause the energy to be dissipated as heat either in the wire, or in the transmitter.  Such is the concern of a poorly tuned antenna because the current in the wire flows, and comes back to the transmitter.  The current flow is not properly cancelled by the outgoing and reflected current, and the result is the persistence of the existence of energy held by the current in the antenna wire.  When this happens, and the antenna returns energy to the dipole center, it will be dissipated in the transmitter circuitry as resistive heat.  Such is a common cause of transmitter damage.  Hence the importance of a low SWR.

§ The Voltage source does work, (Work = force x distance) on the electrons in accelerating them.  The electrons resist acceleration because they have mass, thus requiring force, and work, to impart velocity and thus create a current in the antenna.

§ The electrons traveling toward the end of the antenna do not lose their energy when they are reflected by the end of the antenna back toward the dipole center.  The electron mass is small compared to the mass of the metal atoms at the end of the antenna.  Thus, the electrons as they reflect have a high velocity compared to the velocity imparted to the antenna end-atoms.  This high velocity and small mass (compared to the target) means that the electron will move too close to nucleus of the target atom.  

· Case 1: Two electrons colliding.  Frame: Incoming particle with velocity, and target particle at rest in Absolute frame.  The kinetic energy field driving the incoming electron forward causes it to continue forward at a given rate.  When the target particle accelerates at a rate identical to the incoming particle’s deceleration, the incoming electron comes to absolute rest, and the target electron leaves with the velocity of the incoming electron.

· Case 2: Electron collides with near infinite mass: The incoming electron comes ever-closer to the target particle’s outer electron shells.  The electrons in the outer shell displace a little, but the atom does not accelerate very much.  Thus, the incoming electron penetrates deeper and deeper into the electron shell of the target atom.  Eventually the proximity of the incoming electron is close enough to produce sufficient repulsive force between these like-charges to completely stop the incoming electron.  At this point all the energy of the collision is stored as potential energy in the field between the incoming electron and the deformed atomic orbitals.  But, since there is no force keeping the incoming electron in this high energy state, the repulsive force between the two will cause the incoming electron to reverse direction with exactly the same energy as it brought into the collision, but with an opposite direction.  

· This digression is important because it confronts the issue of energy conservation in the context of E&B fields.  The momentum of the electron-atom collision is conserved, but because of the mismatch of masses, the energy is reflected back toward the dipole center.  The principles and forces involved in charge-charge collisions apply also to the charge-field interactions such as photon reflection and RF field reflection in at the end of the antenna.

§ In the case of the antenna, we cannot separate the movement of charge from the movement of the E field down the antenna.  When the E field collides with the end of the antenna, it polarizes the atoms there.  But, since there are no more atoms farther down the wire, the end-atoms are left with radiating the E field off into space associated with their polarization.  

· At the end of the antenna, the energy goes through a “state transformation”.  As it travels through the antenna wire at the speed of light its energy is held by the polarization of atoms by the E field.  

· But, at the end of the antenna, that speed of light E field loses its energy to a static polarization of the electron-nucleus dipole.  In effect, its directional kinetic energy vector has been neutralized, converted into a potential energy field which has its own directionality of polarization which is complementary to the velocity-direction of the field.  

· Thus, energy has converted from a directional velocity entity, to a directional field entity.  The energy carried by the E field, and the associated electron-nucleus tension, cannot be held in place after the E field passes.  Thus, the electron-nucleus tension releases, producing a reflected E field, and electron movement opposite to the direction of the outgoing E field.

· The polarization of the electron-nucleus dipole by a negative E field extends the electron farther toward the end of the antenna.  The collapse of the electron-nucleus dipole causes the displaced electron to move toward the nucleus, creates a kinetic energy E&B field, which then propagates back toward the dipole center.

· In the case of the positive E field polarization wave, the electrons are drawn toward the dipole center by the outgoing E field.  When the wave reaches the antenna end, the electron-nucleus dipole is polarized with the electron displaced away from the nucleus toward the dipole center.  Thus, when it collapses, it will move back toward the nucleus, and create the associated momentum E&B fields.  But, there are no additional electron-nuclei dipoles that the field can polarize so it simply polarizes the same atom on its opposite side.  Then, when that polarization collapses, the E field it creates can in fact be passed down the antenna back toward the dipole center.

§ Thus, in summary, the process of reflection involves the absorption polarization energy by the outer conduction orbitals of the atoms at the end of the antenna.  When the E field passes, that polarization collapses and produces a reversal of the direction of the E field, causing it to return back to the dipole center.

§ The E&B momentum fields of the outgoing electrons, add together with the E&B momentum fields on the incoming electrons to create a net summation E&B momentum field.  The current out, and current in add together to create a net effective field.

§ In effect, these fields, and currents pass by each other.  The reflected electrons return to the transmitter, in phase with the current that it is being generated at each moment.  Thus, a region of current maxima (positive and negative) effectively flows back and forth, endlessly cycling, from one end of the antenna to the other.  

§ The “summation B field” associated with the outward and inward current changes at every moment.  

§ The electron current magnitude flowing back to the voltage source contributes the current flow that would be created by the voltage source at that particular moment in the cycle.  

§ The process of the continued application of voltage (and hence power) to the electrons allows the continued radiation of energy associated with their summation.  

§ The question is thus, “where is the point that the momentum E&B field energy given to the electrons by the voltage source is separated from the electrons and becomes an independent energetic entity?”

§ On a pure factual level, particles and their fields are never completely separated.  Once a field is generated, it propagates forever.  But, functionally, as soon as a field is irrevocably cancelled by an opposing field that travels with it forever, there is no net effect from that field ever again.  Such total cancellations occur when there is a collision and energy transfers to a second particle.  The fields generated in the collision are anti-symmetrical and cancel, creating the process of energy transfer from one entity or compartment to another.  

§ In the case of the antenna, the collision between fields and mass occurs at every moment, at every segment of the antenna.  The electrons accelerate and decelerate at every segment in perfect sinusoidal harmony.  The result is that the breaks between the movement of electrons flowing in the antenna and the underlying fields occur at every moment, at every segment of the antenna.  The flow of electrons in each wire segment reflects the net sum of all E fields present in that segment at each moment.  And, because the E field-sum changes each moment in every segment, the electrons flow at a different rate in each segment at every moment.  

§ The effect of this changing E field and electron velocity is to produce a disconnection between the electrons and the field they have produced at each moment.  In other words, the kinetic Energy E&B fields produced by the flow of electrons in each segment at each moment energetically disconnects and allows the E&B field to radiate and actually transfer energy from the electron velocity and voltage source E field to the EM Dipole polarization of space.    

o The process of transfer of energy from the voltage source E field to the radiation of RF fields into space occurs when the electrons are given energy by the E field acceleration.  

§ This is a transfer of energy from the potential energy of the E field to the electron’s velocity.  

· Every energetic transfer is lossless.  The question is whether the transaction produces a greater state of randomness, or a lesser state.  

· The process without change in randomness is reversible and has no indicator of the arrow of time.  But, the process that goes from a state of less randomness to greater randomness is irreversible and points in the direction of the arrow of time.  

· When the electron gives is energy up to a cylindrically radiating EM field, the process is irreversible, because it is moving toward greater randomness at each moment.  

§ An example of a reversible process is the formation of the photon.  The electron shell drop causes the emission of a photon which can be absorbed by another orbital electron and produce the same level of activation and order that was present in the original atom prior to its orbital decay.

§ The refraction and reemission of a photon EM field as it goes through a plane of glass is likewise reversible.  

· The photon is absorbed and reemitted repeatedly by the dipolar space of the glass, and the propagation rate is slowed by the mass of the atom-orbitals dipoles, but the photon is unaltered in its ability to continue to propagate along a single axis by this excursion through a more dense medium of transmission.

§ In the case of the electron reflection off the end of the antenna, there is a disconnection between the E field that created the electron displacement and the electron.  

· The energy once fully carried by the E field that created the displacement is essentially absorbed by the electron-nuclei.  But, in the next moment, that energy is released back into the wire as an E field propagating in the opposite direction.  

· In a superconducting wire where a simple pulse was introduced, that pulse would eternally bounce back and forth between the ends of that wire.  Such a system has the characteristics of a reversible system.

· If the voltage source E field had been applied to a superconducting circuit, and no losses were suffered by electron collisions, then the E field energy of the source would be conserved endlessly in its transit and reflections.

· In such a system there is no increase in disorder, and there is no loss to radiation unless an inductive coupling to the field of the pulse is taken and a load placed on that external coupled circuit.  In that case the kinetic energy of the pulse is drawn off and irreversible energy transfers of energy made to molecular motion.

· But, this case is fundamentally different than the antenna where the energy of the electrons in the antenna are driven by a voltage source and the superimposition of the fields produces a self-canceling destructive interference that removes the connection between the electrons and their fields.  And this self-canceling destructive interference can only continue as long as the voltage source continues to drive current into the resonant antenna circuitry.  

· At the moment the voltage source stops, the energy still eunable to disconnect from its kinetic energy fields.  Thus, this kinetic energy will be dissipated as heat as the electrons participate in various resistive, irreversible, particle-motion randomizing collisions.***